Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: Pheromone trapping to determine Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) activity in Kansas Author
|Schwarting, Holly N - Kansas State University|
|Whitworth, R. Jeff - Kansas State University|
|Cramer, Gary - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Kansas Entomological Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/22/2015
Publication Date: 12/2/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/63228
Citation: Schwarting, H., Whitworth, R., Cramer, G., Chen, M. 2015. Pheromone trapping to determine Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) activity in Kansas. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society. 88(4):411-417. doi:10.2317/0022-8567-88.4.411. Interpretive Summary: The Hessian fly remains one of the most destructive pests of wheat throughout the Great Plains, including Kansas. The insect is difficult to monitor because of its tiny size and short life span. Recently, a new pheromone trap technique has been developed for this insect that was used to monitor Hessian fly population changes throughout the year in four counties in Kansas. Our results show that Hessian fly adults are active in the fall, at least one month later than the historical fly-free dates established more than 100 years ago. Therefore, the ‘Hessian Fly-Free Date’ is no longer valid and should be referred to as the ‘Best Pest Management Date’. Our data also indicated that Hessian fly is more active throughout the spring than previously thought and emergence activity is not correlated with moisture events. These results will be useful for improving integrated pest management of Hessian fly on wheat.
Technical Abstract: The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), has been a historically significant pest of wheat throughout the Great Plains, including Kansas. However, it has been many decades since the flies’ activity has been monitored throughout the year in the field. This paper presents research on the activity of the HF throughout the year in Kansas by examining when the fly is active and how moisture events may play a role. Results of a newer technology, pheromone trapping, in four counties in Kansas show that HF males are active in the fall, at least 1 month later than the historical fly-free dates established more than 100 years ago. Therefore, the ‘Hessian Fly-Free Date’ is no longer valid and should be referred to as the ‘Best Pest Management Date’. Using pheromones for fall and spring trapping also indicated that HF is more active throughout the spring than previously thought, with almost continuous fly emergence and numerous emergence peaks in both spring and fall. Pheromone traps were also used to determine if fly emergence peaked after a moisture event, as previously thought. However, fly emergence could not be positively correlated with any moisture event.