|HUGH, BRUCK ALAN - University Of Maryland|
|BALSOM, JOSH - Food And Drug Administration(FDA)|
|PRICKRIL, BEN - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
|OSSANDON, MIGUEL - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
|RASOOLEY, AVRAHAM - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
Submitted to: Diagnostics
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/6/2016
Publication Date: 5/17/2016
Citation: Rasooly, R., Hugh, B., Balsom, J., Prickril, B., Ossandon, M., Rasooley, A. 2016. Improving the sensitivity and functionality of mobile webcam-based fluorescence detectors for point-of-care diagnostics in global health. Diagnostics. 6:(2). doi: 10.3390/diagnostics6020019.
Interpretive Summary: The manuscript review several optical detection technologies and provide detailed examples of approach to improve level of detection for imaging based detection including:(1) computational image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios,(2) lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry, and(3) streak imaging to capture and analyze the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell. The manuscript analyze factors contributing to improve sensitivity of mobile low cost optical detectors sensitivity and describe approaches to enhance their use in low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.
Technical Abstract: Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, CCD cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader were developed for many applications including for detecting microbial toxins including Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB). Flow cytometry is used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility, and we have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity, including: (1) image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios, (2) lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry, and (3) streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches help overcome some of the limitations of low cost optical detection technologies such as high noise levels or low sensitivities, and provide for their use in low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.