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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Western Human Nutrition Research Center » Obesity and Metabolism Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #324399

Research Project: Improving Public Health by Understanding Diversity in Diet, Body, and Brain Interactions

Location: Obesity and Metabolism Research

Title: Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

item WIDAMAN, ADRIANNE - University Of California
item STANHOPE, KIMBER - University Of California
item CHEN, GUOXIA - University Of California
item MEDICI, VALENTINA - University Of California
item BREMER, ANDREW - University Of California
item LEE, VIVIEN - University Of California
item NUNEZ, MARINEWLLW - University Of California
item HAVEL, PETER - University Of California
item Keim, Nancy

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/9/2015
Publication Date: 4/2/2016
Citation: Widaman, A.M., Stanhope, K.L., Chen, G.X., Medici, V., Bremer, A.A., Lee, V., Nunez, M.V., Havel, P.J., Keim, N.L. 2016. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake. Meeting Abstract. Experimental Biology 2016, April 2-6, 2016, San Diego, CA.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five types of beverage sweeteners: glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), sucrose (SUC), high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or aspartame (ASP). The beverages were provided at ~25% of estimated energy needs for weight maintenance for 2 weeks and consumed along with the subjects’ usual diets. Before (week 0) and at the end (week 2) of the intervention, subjects were admitted to a metabolic ward and as inpatients participated in a day-long protocol designed to measure ad libitum food and beverage intake from buffets offered at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. One hundred and thirty men and women with an average age of 26.3 ± 6.3 y and a BMI of 25.3 ± 3.6 kg/m² participated. The changes in food and beverage energy intake (week 2 – week 0) were analyzed using ANCOVA, adjusting for BMI, sex, and energy intake at week 0. Energy intake was significantly affected by sugar (p=0.0026, ANCOVA), with subjects consuming SUC (386 ± 96 kcal, p=0.0011, Tukeys) or HFCS (242 ± 89 kcal, p=0.022, Tukeys) significantly increasing their intake at 2 weeks compared with subjects consuming ASP (-169 ± 100 kcal) and compared with their week 0 intake (p=0.0001 and p=0.0072, respectively). Buffet energy intake did not change significantly for the groups consuming GLU (p=0.198), FRU (p=0.064), or ASP (p=0.096) between weeks 0 and 2. Further analysis of the influence of sex on buffet intake showed that the increases in energy intake at week 2 were mainly attributable to men. Men consuming SUC (580 ± 137 kcal, p=0.0072, Tukeys) or HFCS (426 ± 123 kcal, p=0.047, Tukeys) significantly increased their energy intake at 2 weeks compared with men consuming ASP (-176 ± 143 kcal). In contrast, for women, there were no differences among groups, or between week 0 and week 2 buffet energy intake, regardless of the sweetened beverage assigned. In conclusion, we found that compared with aspartame, the caloric sweeteners, HFCS and sucrose, commonly used to sweeten soft drinks and fruit drinks, increased total energy intake during a day-long buffet protocol offered in a controlled research setting. The effect of these sweeteners was more pronounced in men.