|MANDAL, SANCHITA - University Of South Australia|
|SARKAR, BINOY - University Of South Australia|
|BOLAN, NANTHI - University Of Newcastle|
|OK, YONG SIK - Kangwon National University|
|VAN ZWIENTEN, LUKAS - Southern Cross University|
|BHUPINDER, PAL SINGH - University Of New England|
|KIRKHAM, MARY BETH - Kansas State University|
|CHOPPALA, GIRISH - Southern Cross University|
|NAIDU, RAVI - University Of New England|
Submitted to: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science Technology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/6/2016
Publication Date: 9/26/2016
Citation: Mandal, S., Sarkar, B., Bolan, N., Novak, J.M., Ok, Y., Van Zwienten, L., Bhupinder, P., Kirkham, M., Choppala, G., Spokas, K.A., Naidu, R. 2016. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science Technology. 46(17):1367-1401.
Interpretive Summary: Rising emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG) from agricultural land, due to man’s activities of burning fossil fuels and land use changes (deforestation) are major contributors to global warming. Agricultural activities have been linked as major sources for GHG production. The GHG emissions from agricultural soil can be reduced by organic amendments, such as biochar, which can improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Biochar materials are a solid residual, which contain between 30 to 80% carbon. Thus, biochars applied to soils can offset carbon emitted as GHG. However, biochars affects in soils are variable and the duration of their impact remains uncertain. The purpose of our paper was to review the scientific literature and report on methods that can reduce the variable response of biochars in soils. We report that biochars can be modified through chemical and physical activation to optimize outcomes for lowering GHG emissions.
Technical Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression due to its interactions in the soil system. However, these effects are variable and the duration of the impact remains uncertain. Various (nano) materials can be used to modify chars to obtain surface functionality to mitigate GHG emissions. This review critically focuses on the innovative methodologies for improving char efficiency underpinning GHG mitigation and carbon sequestration.