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Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF INSECTS THAT ATTACK HORTICULTURAL, TURF, AND NURSERY CROPS

Location: Application Technology Research

Title: Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

Author
item Ranger, Christopher
item Reding, Michael - Mike
item SCHULTZ, PETER - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University
item OLIVER, JASON - Tennessee State University
item FRANK, STEVEN - North Carolina State University
item ADDESSO, KARLA - Tennessee State University
item CHONG, JUANG HONG - Clemson University
item Sampson, Blair
item Werle, Christopher
item GILL, STANTON - University Of Maryland
item Krause, Charles

Submitted to: Journal of Integrated Pest Management
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/3/2016
Publication Date: 5/2/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5801826
Citation: Ranger, C.M., Reding, M.E., Schultz, P., Oliver, J., Frank, S., Addesso, K., Chong, J., Sampson, B.J., Werle, C.T., Gill, S., Krause, C.R. 2016. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 7(1):9; 1-23.

Interpretive Summary: Several species of non-native ambrosia beetles are established in North America and some species have become destructive pests of ornamental nursery trees. The black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), are two of the most damaging species in ornamental nurseries. Adult female beetles tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees. Hosts are then infected with symbiotic fungi that serve as food for the larvae and adults. Trees can also become infected with secondary opportunistic pathogens. Both X. germanus and X. crassiusculus have broad host ranges and infestations can result in sawdust “toothpicks” and sap flow associated gallery entrances, aesthetic damage to stems/trunks and branches, branch dieback, profuse basal sprouts, and tree death. Beetles efficiently locate and preferentially attack living but weakened trees, especially those physiologically stressed by flooding, inadequate drainage, frost injury, or winter injury/low temperature stress. Maintaining tree health is the foundation of a management plan. Vulnerable hosts can be protected with preventive pyrethroid applications in the spring before peak flight and attack, which are monitored using ethanol-based trapping tactics

Technical Abstract: Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with brood chambers. Hosts are infected with symbiotic Ambrosiella spp. fungi that serve as food for the larvae and adults. Trees can also become infected with secondary opportunistic pathogens, including Fusarium spp. Both X. germanus and X. crassiusculus have broad host ranges and infestations can result in sawdust “toothpicks” and sap flow associated gallery entrances, aesthetic damage to stems/trunks and branches, branch dieback, profuse basal sprouts, and tree death. Beetles efficiently locate and preferentially attack living but weakened trees, especially those physiologically stressed by flooding, inadequate drainage, frost injury, or winter injury/low temperature stress. Maintaining tree health is the foundation of a management plan. Vulnerable hosts can be protected with preventive pyrethroid applications in the spring before peak flight and attack, which are monitored using ethanol-based trapping tactics.