Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2016
Publication Date: 10/24/2016
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Kapczynski, D.R. 2016. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry. In: Swayne, D.E., editor. Animal Influenza. 2nd edition. Ames, IA: Wiley- Blackwell. p.378-434.
Technical Abstract: Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg production drops, and bird-to-bird contact transmission; decrease the number of birds infected with AI virus (AIV); and reduce high pathogenicity (HP) AIV contamination of eggs, and the quantity of AIV shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts. AI vaccines are produced from various technologies including inactivated whole AI vaccines, in vitro expressed HA protein, in vivo expressed HA protein in vectored systems, and HA-based DNA vaccines to induce protective immunity. AI vaccines must be periodically re-evaluated to determine if they are still effective against circulating field virus strains, and should be replaced with updated strains if no longer protective under field conditions.