Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/28/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global development. Currently, inactivated virus vaccines are produced using virulent live virus and require high containment facilities to avoid virus escape. Differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) with current vaccines requires removal of non-structural viral proteins which adds to the cost of production. These vaccines widely used in endemic countries require approximately 7 days to induce protection. A novel vaccine approach that overcomes several of these limitations has been recently developed. The vaccine uses a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector to deliver only FMDV proteins required to form empty capsids (Ad5-FMD). This vaccine has proven as effective as the currently commercially available FMDV vaccine and has been granted a provisional license for production and use in the United States in outbreak situations. In addition to the Ad5-FMD vaccine, novel strategies using the same Ad5 vector system have been explored to deliver FMDV subunits and antivirals. This review compiles all data thus far obtained using Ad5 vectors to deliver vaccines and molecules that have antiviral properties as multiple strategies to effectively control FMD.