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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Healthy Body Weight Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #323345

Research Project: Dietary Guidelines Adherence and Healthy Body Weight Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Diet quality is lower and energy intake greater on weekends than weekdays: A one-year longitudinal study of midlife women

Author
item Jahns, Lisa
item Johnson, Luann - University Of North Dakota
item Raatz, Susan
item Scheett, Angela - University Of North Dakota
item Stote, Kim - State University Of New York (SUNY)

Submitted to: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2016
Publication Date: 4/1/2016
Citation: Jahns, L.A., Johnson, L.K., Raatz, S.K., Scheett, A.J., Stote, K. 2016. Diet quality is lower and energy intake greater on weekends than weekdays: A one-year longitudinal study of midlife women [abstract]. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Conference, April 1-6, 2016, San Diego, California. 30:906.1.

Interpretive Summary: Objective: To test differences in dietary intake by individual day and on weekends (Friday, Saturday, Sunday) compared to weekdays using energy and macronutrient intake, food groupings and Healthy Eating Index-2010 diet quality scores. Methods: Longitudinal design; 52 women ages 40-60 y completed online diet recalls approximately every 10 days for one year using the Automated Self-administered 24-hour Recall system. Energy (kcal), macronutrient and food group portions were derived. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) total and component scores were calculated. Differences were tested by mixed model analysis of variance. Results: Women completed a total of 1,866 diet recalls. Reported energy intake was greater on weekends than on weekdays (1990 ± 62 kcal vs 1832 ± 53 kcal; P<0.001). Reported macronutrient from protein and carbohydrate was lower and macronutrient from alcohol greater on weekends. There was no difference in the % energy from fat (34.3 ± 0.7 vs 33.4 ± 0.6, respectively; P = 0.07). On weekends, women reported consuming more alcohol, added sugar, fats and oils, eggs, potatoes, meats, and refined grains and less yogurt, whole fruits, orange vegetables, and whole grains than on weekdays. The total HEI-2010 score was lower on weekends than weekdays (58.5 ± 1.5 vs 62.0 ± 1.4; P <0.001). Component scores were lower for Whole Fruits (P = 0.003), Greens and Beans (P = 0.017), Whole Grains (P = 0.002), and Dairy (P = 0.003). Energy intake was greatest on Saturday (2061 ± 78 kcal) and lowest on Tuesday (1756 ± 52 kcal). The macronutrient from carbohydrate was greatest on weekdays and lowest on Friday. The macronutrient from protein was lowest on Saturday. The macronutrient consumed as alcohol was significantly greater on Friday and Saturday than all other days of the week. Conclusions: In this population, weekend eating was associated with lower diet quality scores and different dietary patterns than weekdays. Maintaining weekday intakes of yogurt, whole fruits, orange vegetables and whole grains would be beneficial. Avoiding weekend overindulgence in alcohol, added sugars, and fats may help individuals maintain a healthy weight while consuming a variety of nutrient-rich foods.

Technical Abstract: Objective: To test differences in dietary intake by individual day and on weekends (Friday, Saturday, Sunday) compared to weekdays using energy and macronutrient intake, food groupings and Healthy Eating Index-2010 diet quality scores. Methods: Longitudinal design; 52 women ages 40-60 y completed online diet recalls approximately every 10 days for one year using the Automated Self-administered 24-hour Recall system. Energy (kcal), macronutrient (%en) and food group portions were derived. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) total and component scores were calculated. Differences were tested by mixed model analysis of variance. Results: Women completed a total of 1,866 diet recalls. Reported energy intake was greater on weekends than on weekdays (1990 ± 62 kcal vs 1832 ± 53 kcal; P<0.001). Reported %en from protein and carbohydrate was lower and %en from alcohol greater on weekends. There was no difference in the % energy from fat (34.3 ± 0.7 vs 33.4 ± 0.6, respectively; P = 0.07). On weekends, women reported consuming more alcohol, added sugar, fats and oils, eggs, potatoes, meats, and refined grains and less yogurt, whole fruits, orange vegetables, and whole grains than on weekdays. The total HEI-2010 score was lower on weekends than weekdays (58.5 ± 1.5 vs 62.0 ± 1.4; P <0.001). Component scores were lower for Whole Fruits (P = 0.003), Greens and Beans (P = 0.017), Whole Grains (P = 0.002), and Dairy (P = 0.003). Energy intake was greatest on Saturday (2061 ± 78 kcal) and lowest on Tuesday (1756 ± 52 kcal). The %en from carbohydrate was greatest on weekdays and lowest on Friday. The %en from protein was lowest on Saturday. The %en consumed as alcohol was significantly greater on Friday and Saturday than all other days of the week. Conclusions: In this population, weekend eating was associated with lower diet quality scores and different dietary patterns than weekdays. Maintaining weekday intakes of yogurt, whole fruits, orange vegetables and whole grains would be beneficial. Avoiding weekend overindulgence in alcohol, added sugars, and fats may help individuals maintain a healthy weight while consuming a variety of nutrient-rich foods.