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ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » Meat Safety and Quality » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #323153

Title: Impact of sex on composition and quality of fresh loins, bellies, and fresh and processed hams

item ARKFELD, EMILY - University Of Illinois
item MOHRHAUSER, D - Smithfield Foods, Inc
item King, David - Andy
item Wheeler, Tommy
item DILGER, A - University Of Illinois
item Shackelford, Steven
item BOLER, D - University Of Illinois

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science Supplement
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/7/2015
Publication Date: 3/14/2016
Citation: Arkfeld, E.K., Mohrhauser, D.A., King, D.A., Wheeler, T.L., Dilger, A.C., Shackelford, S.D., Boler, D.D. 2016. Impact of sex on composition and quality of fresh loins, bellies, and fresh and processed hams. [abstract] Journal of Animal Science Supplement. 94(Supplement2):51. doi:10.2527/msasas2016-109.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The objective was to characterize the effect of sex and selection focus on primal quality. Pigs (N=7,672) from a lean growth selection [n=1,468 barrows (LB); n=2,151 gilts (LG)] or superior meat quality selection [n=1,895 barrows (QB); n=2,158 gilts (QG)] focus were slaughtered in 3 marketing groups per barn over hot and cool seasons. Data were analyzed as a 2x2 factorial design. Random effects included barn (N=8), marketing group (N=3), and season (N=2). Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated using PROC MEANS. Carcass composition, subjective quality and VISNIR measures on loins, and ham color were collected on all carcasses. In-plant loin quality and belly quality analyses were conducted on 52.0% and 47.5% of carcasses. Ten percent of the loins and hams (N=858) were selected for slice shear force analysis and processed ham characteristics. Quality barrows (94.94 kg; 11.64% CV) had heavier HCW than QG (P<0.001; 92.81 kg; 10.98% CV). Quality barrows (18.62 mm; 20.85% CV) had a 41.1% greater backfat depth than LG (P<0.0001; 13.20 mm; 24.88% CV). Gilts, regardless of selection strategy, (68.46 mm; 12.28% CV) had and greater loin depths than barrows (P<0.0001; 67.22 mm; 12.73% CV) and the lean focused program had an 8.6% greater loin depth than the quality focused program (70.64 vs. 65.04 mm). Lean gilts (59.37%; 3.67% CV) had a greater percent lean than LB (P<0.0001; 58.09%; 4.03% CV); LB was greater than QG (P=0.05; 56.95%; 3.57% CV); QG was greater than QB (P<0.0001; 55.24%; 4.31% CV). Barrows (7.60 kg; 15.55%) had a heavier (7.32 kg; 15.09% CV) firmer [1.9 (36.22% CV) vs. 1.9 (42.98% CV)] bellies. Loins were 16.7% heavier in LG (4.06 kg; 11.08% CV) than QB (P<0.0001; 3.48 kg; 13.88% CV) and ultimate loin pH was greater in barrows (5.71; 2.63% CV) than gilts (P<0.0001; 5.69; 2.49% CV). Although pre-trim ham weights were not different between sexes (P=0.39), post trim weights were heavier in hams from gilts (9.86 kg; 9.82% CV) than barrows (P=0.01; 9.70 kg; 9.82% CV). This resulted in a greater final cooked weight in hams from gilts (5.14 kg; 12.54%) than barrows (4.97 kg; 12.87%) given the lack of difference between sexes for cook yield (P=0.10). With minimal differences in variation (CV), sex and selection focus drove differences. Gilts produced heavier muscled trimmer carcasses, resulting in greater weight of lean cuts; barrows produced heavier, firmer bellies.