|WOODS, KRISTIN - Auburn University|
|Bett Garber, Karen|
Submitted to: Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/19/2018
Publication Date: 3/23/2018
Citation: Bechtel, P.J., Bland, J.M., Woods, K., Lea, J.M., Brashear, S.S., Boue, S.M., Daigle, K.W., Bett Garber, K.L. 2018. Effect of par frying on composition and texture of breaded and battered catfish. Foods. 7:46. https://doi:10.3390/foods7040046.
Interpretive Summary: Catfish production is the largest US aquaculture industry; and approximately 161 million pounds of catfish were processed in 2012. The catfish industry produces a large number of breaded and battered catfish products for deep fat frying; however, few breaded and battered products are designed for baking. The most common problem with baked battered and breaded fish products is that the texture is different (less crisp) than the fried product. One method of improving the texture properties of baked products is to par fry the product prior to baking. Issues associated with par frying fish products are equipment and operation expenses and the increased percent of calories from the cooking oil that is adsorbed by the product. A baked product that is not par fried but would have texture properties approaching those of a fried product would have the potential to meet purchasing specification for food service operations, such as school districts, health care facilities and government purchases. The objective of this study was to compare the textures and nutritional parameters of catfish fillet strips battered with rice, corn and wheat based flours, which would be either baked or par fried and then baked. Catfish fillets were cut into strips and then coated with either rice, corn or wheat based flour batters Before freezing, half of the strips were par fried in 350 F vegetable oil for 1 min and the other half were not par fried. Both par fried and non par fried products were baked at 350 F for 25 min. Analysis of the products included % batter adhesion, cooking loss, % protein, % lipid, % ash and % moisture. A sensory panel evaluated texture properties and a texture analyzer was used to measure hardness. Results found the oil content of par fried then baked products was significantly higher for the corn and wheat batters compared to that of comparable non par fried baked products. Sensory results indicated the coatings on the par fried then baked catfish strips had better texture characteristics than baked products. Hardness values measured with a texture analyzer were higher for the par fried then baked treatment when compared to the non par fried treatment. In summary, battered catfish strips that are baked have a lower oil content but a less desirable texture than catfish strips that are par fried first and then baked.
Technical Abstract: Catfish is often consumed as a breaded and battered fried product; however, baking is considered a healthier alternative to frying. One method of improving the texture properties of baked products is to par fried prior to baking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of par frying on the composition and texture properties of baked catfish strips that were coated with three different batters. Catfish fillets were cut into 25 to 30 g strips and then coated with either rice, corn or wheat based flour batters, all of which had similar viscosities. Before freezing, half of the strips were par fried in 177 o C vegetable oil for 1 min and the other half were not par fried. Frozen samples were baked at 177 o C for 25 min. Analysis of the resulting products included % batter adhesion, cooking loss, % protein, % lipid, % ash and % moisture. A sensory panel evaluated breading texture attributes including flakiness, hardness, fracturability, crispness and tooth packing as well as the fish flesh texture attributes: firmness, moisture release, fibrous, moisture retention and cohesiveness of mass. Hardness and fracture quality were measured using a Steven’s QTS Texture Analyzer. Results, which were statistically analyzed have shown the oil content of par fried then baked products was significantly higher for the corn and wheat batters than comparable non-par fried treatments. Sensory results indicated the coatings on the par fried baked catfish strips were significantly greater than the baked coating treatment for hardness, fracturability and crispness attributes. These results had interaction effects that were driven by the type of batter. Fillet flakiness was significantly greater in the par fried treatment than in the baked fish treatment. The corn based batters had moister fillet strips compared to the wheat flour batters. Texture Analyzer hardness values were higher for the par fried treatment than non par fried treatments.