Skip to main content
ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Corvallis, Oregon » National Clonal Germplasm Repository » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #322235

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository

Title: USDA Fragaria Crop Vulnerability Statement 2014

Author
item Hummer, Kim

Submitted to: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2014
Publication Date: 10/30/2014
Publication URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/cgclist.html#Small
Citation: Hummer, K.E. 2014. USDA Fragaria Crop Vulnerability Statement 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). I:1-54.

Interpretive Summary: In 2011, about 4.5 thousand MT of strawberries, were produced in about 75 countries. The US is the leading producing nation with approximately 28% of the world’s crop. Strawberries rank as the fifth most popular fresh-market fruit in the United States, with per capita consumption increasing steadily over the past decade to 3 kg per year in 2010. At 2.2 billion dollars, the US strawberry crop surpassed apples in value in 2010 and was second only to grapes among noncitrus fruits. Strawberry species have a complex background including natural diploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and octoploid genomes. Centers for strawberry species diversity include Eurasia and North and South America. The primary cultivated gene pool is octoploid, and the hybrid berry that dominates the commercial market has only been developed within the last 260 years. Wild species distributions are limited, and landraces may be lost with encroachment of human development. Molecular geneticists have realized the advantage of working with Fragaria and its small-sized genome. Breeders are incorporating new sources of wild plant material to reconstruct the original hybrid cross and to expand the restricted cultivated gene pool. Internationally, 27 countries and two genebank networks maintain more than 12,000 accessions in about 57 locations. Roughly half of these accessions represent advanced breeding selections of the cultivated hybrid strawberry, F. *ananassa, some of which are proprietary. It’s estimated that, in addition to public collections, global private corporations also maintain a similar amount of proprietary cultivated hybrids for internal use. The US national strawberry genebank is located at the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Oregon. The NCGR genebank collection includes 42 Fragaria taxa and about 1800 accessions. The NCGR genebank includes a primary collection of living strawberry plants, protected in containers in greenhouses and screenhouses. Aphids, which vector viruses, are excluded from these houses. Integrated pest management techniques minimize powdery mildew, spider mites and other key pests. A core collection representing world species and heritage cultivars has been defined. A “supercore” collection of wild American octoploids has also been defined. A secondary backup core collection is maintained in vitro under refrigerated temperatures. A long-term backup core collection of meristems has been placed in cryogenic storage on site, and at the remote base location, National Center for Genetic Resource Preservation, Ft. Collins, Colorado. At Corvallis, species diversity is represented by seed lots stored in -18 C or backed up in cryogenics. In addition, living plant representatives of major taxa are maintained in pots in screenhouses. Plants are tested for common viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas as funding allows. Plant identity is checked by comparison with written description, review by botanical and horticultural taxonomic experts, and evaluation by molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeat markers. SNP markers and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approaches are under development. The collection has been documented for accession, inventory, voucher images and morphological and genetic observations on the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) in Beltsville, Maryland. More than 5,600 strawberry accessions have been distributed to international and domestic requestors during the past 5 years. The collection presently has about 440 cultivars. Other major cultivars from the US or Europe not in the collection are being sought to broaden representation of historical cultivars. Species representatives are especially needed from Alaska, Hawaii, Western and Southwestern United States (including Oregon, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico), acro

Technical Abstract: In 2011, about 4.5 thousand MT of strawberries, Fragaria L., were produced in about 75 countries. The US is the leading producing nation with approximately 28% of the world’s crop. Strawberries rank as the fifth most popular fresh-market fruit in the United States, with per capita consumption increasing steadily over the past decade to 3 kg per year in 2010 (USDA-ERS, 2010). At 2.2 billion dollars, the US strawberry crop surpassed apples in value in 2010 and was second only to grapes among noncitrus fruits (USDA-NASS, 2011). Strawberry species have a complex background including natural diploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and octoploid genomes. Centers for strawberry species diversity include Eurasia and North and South America. The primary cultivated gene pool is octoploid, and the hybrid berry that dominates the commercial market has only been developed within the last 260 years. Wild species distributions are limited, and landraces may be lost with encroachment of human development. Molecular geneticists have realized the advantage of working with Fragaria and its small-sized genome. Breeders are incorporating new sources of wild plant material to reconstruct the original hybrid cross and to expand the restricted cultivated gene pool. Internationally, 27 countries and two genebank networks maintain more than 12,000 accessions in about 57 locations. Roughly half of these accessions represent advanced breeding selections of the cultivated hybrid strawberry, F. *ananassa, some of which are proprietary. It’s estimated that, in addition to public collections, global private corporations also maintain a similar amount of proprietary cultivated hybrids for internal use. The US national strawberry genebank is located at the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Oregon. The NCGR genebank collection includes 42 Fragaria taxa and about 1800 accessions. The NCGR genebank includes a primary collection of living strawberry plants, protected in containers in greenhouses and screenhouses. Aphids, which vector viruses, are excluded from these houses. Integrated pest management techniques minimize powdery mildew, spider mites and other key pests. A core collection representing world species and heritage cultivars has been defined. A “supercore” collection of wild American octoploids has also been defined. A secondary backup core collection is maintained in vitro under refrigerated temperatures. A long-term backup core collection of meristems has been placed in cryogenic storage on site, and at the remote base location, National Center for Genetic Resource Preservation, Ft. Collins, Colorado. At Corvallis, species diversity is represented by seed lots stored in -18 C or backed up in cryogenics. In addition, living plant representatives of major taxa are maintained in pots in screenhouses. Plants are tested for common viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas as funding allows. Plant identity is checked by comparison with written description, review by botanical and horticultural taxonomic experts, and evaluation by molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeat markers. SNP markers and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approaches are under development. The collection has been documented for accession, inventory, voucher images and morphological and genetic observations on the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) in Beltsville, Maryland. More than 5,600 strawberry accessions have been distributed to international and domestic requestors during the past 5 years. The collection presently has about 440 cultivars. Other major cultivars from the US or Europe not in the collection are being sought to broaden representation of historical cultivars. Species representatives are especially needed from Alaska, Hawaii, Western and Southwestern United States (including O