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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Washington, D.C. » National Arboretum » Floral and Nursery Plants Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #322182

Research Project: Detection and Identification of Soil-borne Plant Pathogens and Mitigation of Soil-borne Diseases

Location: Floral and Nursery Plants Research

Title: Natural Mechanism of Soil Suppressiveness Against Diseases caused by Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Phytophthora

Author
item Jambhulkar, Prashant - Maharana Pratap University Of Agriculture And Technology
item Sharma, Mahavir - Indian Agricultural Research Institute
item Lakshman, Dilip
item Sharma, Pratibha - Indian Agricultural Research Institute

Submitted to: SpringerPlus
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/10/2015
Publication Date: 10/11/2015
Citation: Jambhulkar, P., Sharma, M., Lakshman, D.K., Sharma, P. 2015. Natural Mechanism of Soil Suppressiveness Against Diseases caused by Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Phytophthora. SpringerPlus. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-23075-7_5.

Interpretive Summary: Soil borne fungal and oomycete plant pathogens are among the major biotic factors limiting productivity in agriculture and are often difficult to control with conventional strategies such as the use of resistant host cultivars and synthetic fungicides. Enhancement of soil-based natural disease suppression could be an effective option to control diseases, especially if it can be achieved by in-field enhancement through crop and/or soil management practices. This suppressive effect has been attributed to diverse microbial communities including bacteria, fungi and protozoa and is reported to affect pathogen survival in soil and root infection. However there is uncertainty surrounding the identity of causal microbial agents and ecological processes that result in disease suppressive soils. While not without their limitations, microbiomic methods currently provide the best tool for examining this question. Suppression cannot be achieved for all pathogens in question as the factors predicted to suppress different diseases are different for each pathogen. This review summarizes various mechanisms of soil suppression of plant diseases and discusses the roles of organic matter and composts in disease suppression.

Technical Abstract: Soil borne fungal and oomycete plant pathogens are among the major biotic factors limiting productivity in agriculture and are often difficult to control with conventional strategies such as the use of resistant host cultivars and synthetic fungicides. Enhancement of soil-based natural disease suppression could be an effective option to control diseases, especially if it can be achieved by in-field enhancement through crop and/or soil management practices. This suppressive effect has been attributed to diverse microbial communities including bacteria, fungi and protozoa and are reported to affect pathogen survival in soil and root infection. However there is uncertainty surrounding the identity of causal microbial agents and ecological processes that result in disease suppressive soils. While it is likely that the principal mode of suppression will vary with each incidence of pathogen suppressive soil, each study should commence by attempting to ascertain whether suppression is specific or general. While not without their limitations, microbiomic methods currently provide the best tool for examining this question. Suppression cannot be achieved for all pathogens in question as the factors predicted to suppress different diseases are different for each pathogen. This review summarizes various mechanisms of soil suppressiveness against plant diseases and discusses the roles of organic matter and composts in the suppression of diseases caused by Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora spp.