Submitted to: American Journal of Applied Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/3/2016
Publication Date: 5/4/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5642495
Citation: Jarret, R.L., Levy, I., Potter, T.L., Cermak, S.C. 2016. Oil and fatty acids in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and some related and unrelated Solanum Spp. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 11(2):76-81.
Interpretive Summary: Seed of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were analyzed for oil content using time-doman nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). Samples analyzed included plant materials of both Asian and African origins. Additional materials analyzed included six species of Solanum believed to be closely related to the common eggplant, and 25 additional species of Solanum that are distantly or very distantly related to eggplant. Eggplant seed oil values ranged from 17.2 to 28%. Seed oil in the related species were also analyzed for their fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of the related species was not significantly different from that of the common eggplant.
Technical Abstract: The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ), six related specied (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anaguivi Lam., S linnaeanum Hepper & P.M.L. Jaeger, S. litchensteinii L., and S. macrocarpon L.) and 25 additional Solanum species, was determined by NMR. Eggplant (S. melongena) seed oil content varied from 17.2% (PI63911317471) to 28% (GRIP 13962) with a mean of 23.7% (std. dev = 2.1) across the 305 samples. Seed oil content in other Solanum species varied from 11.8% (S. capsicoides - PI 370043) to 44.9% (S. aviculare - PI 420414). Fatty acids were also determined by HPLC in genebank accessions of S. melongena (55), S. aethiopicum (10), S. anguivi (4), S. incanum (4) and S. macrocarpon (2). In all samples examined, the predominant fatty acide was linoleic acide (18:2) followed by oleic acid (18:1) and palmitic acide (16;00. Levels of linoleic acid ranged from 57% (S. aethiopicum - PI 194166) to 74.5% (S. anguivi - PI 183357). Oleic and palmitic acid levels ranged from 11.3% (S. anguivi - PI 183357) to 25.2% (S. aethiopicum - PI 194166), and 8.4% (S. melongeno - PI 115507) to 11.2% (S. melongena - PI60091), respectively. Oil extracted from seed of S. melongena cv. Black Beauty had a pour point of -12°C, viscosities of 28.8 (40°C) and 7.3 (100°C), a viscosity index of 240, and oxidation onset temperature of 160°C and a Gardner Color of 6+.