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ARS Home » Midwest Area » St. Paul, Minnesota » Cereal Disease Lab » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #321767

Research Project: CEREAL RUST FUNGI: GENETICS, POPULATION BIOLOGY, AND HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS

Location: Cereal Disease Lab

Title: Wheat rusts in the United States in 2014

Author
item Kolmer, James - Jim
item Jin, Yue
item Hughes, Mark

Submitted to: Wheat Newsletter
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2015
Publication Date: 9/1/2015
Citation: Kolmer, J.A., Jin, Y., Hughes, M.E. 2015. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2014. Wheat Newsletter. 61:84-92.

Interpretive Summary: Wheat is attacked by three different rust fungi. Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici occurred at very low levels in the U.S. in 2014. Stem rust on wheat was reported in very low amounts in eight states. A single type of stem rust, called QFCS was found in all locations. Wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina was found throughout the eastern US, southern states, Ohio Valley and the Great Plains region. Infection levels of leaf rust were light in the Great Plains were low due to drought and cool temperatures in the spring. Fifty five different races or types of leaf rust were found in the US in 2014. Wheat stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici was not very widespread in the U.S. in 2014 due to the drought conditions in the Great Plains region.

Technical Abstract: Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici was not widespread or severe in the U.S. in 2014. It was only reported in nursery locations this season in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Wheat stem rust was first reported on April 7 at Weslaco in extreme southern Texas. Race QFCSC was the most commonly identified wheat stem rust race in 2014 and in recent years. Leaf rust caused by P. triticina was at very low levels in the central Great Plains in 2014 due to drought and very dry conditions. As a result wheat leaf rust inoculum for areas north and east was very limited. The cool spring delayed leaf rust development in many areas. In the Southeast and mid-Atlantic areas wheat leaf rust was more widespread, but generally at low levels with the exception of higher severities noted on the cultivar Shirley at some locations. By late June, leaf rust had appeared at low levels in South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Fifty-five different races of leaf rust were identified in 2014. Wheat stripe rust caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici was not generally as widespread in 2014 as in 2013 or as severe as 2012. Drought conditions in the Central Plains limited rust development there. Stripe rust disease pressure was generally light in most areas of the Pacific Northwest where dry, warm conditions were common.