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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fort Collins, Colorado » Center for Agricultural Resources Research » Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #321614

Research Project: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Preservation and Quality Assessment

Location: Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation

Title: In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

Author
item Jenderek, Maria
item Holman, Gregory
item Irish, Brian
item Souza Vidigal, Fernanda - Embrapa-Labex

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/9/2015
Publication Date: 8/4/2015
Citation: Jenderek, M.M., Holman, G.E., Irish, B.M., Souza Vidigal, F. 2015. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L. Meeting Abstract. pp. 60. 2015 ASHS Conference, New Orleans, LA; August 4-7, 2015.

Interpretive Summary: Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of post cryopreservation viability and for regeneration of plants. The procedure involves grafting of a meristematic shoot or of an embryo onto epicotyl or hypocotyl cambium layer of a young seedling grown aseptically. This study tested the possibility of establishing cacao (T. cacao L) seedlings in vitro with the purpose of using them as rootstocks. Seeds from cacao pods (accession TARS 16542) provided by the Topical Agriculture Research Station in Mayaguez, PR were shipped overnight to Fort Collins, CO. The cacao seeds were extracted, cleaned of mucilage, sterilized and cultured aseptically. The highest germination was observed when seeds were sterilized in isopropyl alcohol (70%; 10 min) followed by sodium hypochlorite (1%; 20 min), rinsed with sterile water and placed on a solid, half strength Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with cysteine (100 mg/L), at 30oC, in dark conditions. The seed germination varied from 60 to 100%. The main impediments for the in vitro germination and seedling development were excretion of phenolic compounds as well as contamination that occurred at various stages of plant development. These factors decreased the number of usable rootstocks. Increasing the concentration of sodium hypochlorite and sterilization time (5%; 40 min) lowered contamination but drastically inhibited the seed germination. After 4-5 days, the seedlings were transferred to double stacked Magenta boxes and placed in a growth chamber (26oC) with an 18 h photoperiod. After 5-6 weeks of cultivation under light conditions, seedlings (ca. 10-12 cm long) were ready for grafting. Shoots 4-6 mm long were grafted into the hypocotyl cambium layer of the rootstocks. After 5-7 day cultivation period under dimed light, the grafted plants were transferred to light conditions (18 h) and 8 weeks later to pots. Over 50% of micrografts developed canopies. In future studies, factors that might increase the number of plants developed from grafts will be evaluated.

Technical Abstract: Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of post cryopreservation viability and for regeneration of plants. The procedure involves grafting of a meristematic shoot or of an embryo onto epicotyl or hypocotyl cambium layer of a young seedling grown aseptically. This study tested the possibility of establishing cacao (T. cacao L) seedlings in vitro with the purpose of using them as rootstocks. Seeds from cacao pods (accession TARS 16542) provided by the Topical Agriculture Research Station in Mayaguez, PR were shipped overnight to Fort Collins, CO. The cacao seeds were extracted, cleaned of mucilage, sterilized and cultured aseptically. The highest germination was observed when seeds were sterilized in isopropyl alcohol (70%; 10 min) followed by sodium hypochlorite (1%; 20 min), rinsed with sterile water and placed on a solid, half strength Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with cysteine (100 mg/L), at 30oC, in dark conditions. The seed germination varied from 60 to 100%. The main impediments for the in vitro germination and seedling development were excretion of phenolic compounds as well as contamination that occurred at various stages of plant development. These factors decreased the number of usable rootstocks. Increasing the concentration of sodium hypochlorite and sterilization time (5%; 40 min) lowered contamination but drastically inhibited the seed germination. After 4-5 days, the seedlings were transferred to double stacked Magenta boxes and placed in a growth chamber (26oC) with an 18 h photoperiod. After 5-6 weeks of cultivation under light conditions, seedlings (ca. 10-12 cm long) were ready for grafting. Shoots 4-6 mm long were grafted into the hypocotyl cambium layer of the rootstocks. After 5-7 day cultivation period under dimed light, the grafted plants were transferred to light conditions (18 h) and 8 weeks later to pots. Over 50% of micrografts developed canopies. In future studies, factors that might increase the number of plants developed from grafts will be evaluated.