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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Poplarville, Mississippi » Southern Horticultural Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #321338

Research Project: Production and Disease and Pest Management of Horticultural Crops

Location: Southern Horticultural Research

Title: A practical method for culturing and novel biology of the spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Author
item Sampson, Blair
item Mallette, Trevor
item ADDESSO, KARLA - Tennessee State University
item LIBURD, OSCAR - University Of Florida
item IGLESIAS, LINDSY - University Of Florida
item Stringer, Stephen
item Werle, Christopher
item Shaw, Donna
item Adamczyk, John

Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/29/2016
Publication Date: 12/9/2016
Citation: Sampson, B.J., Mallette, T., Addesso, K., Liburd, O., Iglesias, L., Stringer, S.J., Werle, C.T., Marshall-Shaw, D.A., Adamczyk Jr, J.J. 2016. A practical method for culturing and novel biology of the spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Florida Entomologist. 99(4):774-780.

Interpretive Summary: The vinegar fly, the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) is a berry pest that can now be more efficiently reared on a standard fruit fly diet containing the fly’s own natural food: soft-skinned berries. Our proposed diet greatly reduces incidents of bacterial and fungal disease in the fly cultures. Recommended ingredients include (by weight) 1 part berry tissue, 1.5 parts dry diet media, 7 parts clean water, and ~5 grains of dry yeast. One or two blackberry or blueberry fruits serve as substrates onto which female fly can lay their eggs. Fruits doubled and tripled pupal and adult production within standard (68 mL) vials at rearing temperatures from 21 to 25 deg. C. Preventing fruit-borne molds from contaminating media requires berries be steriled in 80% or 90% ethanol for ~5 min followed by a thorough rinsing in clean water. Water rinses importantly prevent flies from becoming acutely poisoned. In addition to promoting SWD oviposition, fruit also prevents the buildup of fly-killing bacterial. FlyNap, a common fly anesthetic, proved toxic to SWD adults also. Alternatively, a 5-s blast of carbon dioxide gas or exposure to cold temperatures (4 – 5oC) for =30 minutes can more safely immobilize adult SWD.

Technical Abstract: The non-saprophagous vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii (Mats.) or the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is a global berry pest that is rearable on a standard Drosophila diet containing the fly’s own natural food: soft-skinned berries. Techniques presented here can help curb bacterial and fungal disease once natural host plant material (berries) and artificial food sources (e.g., standard Drosophila media) are integrated. Ingredients in a recommended diet for vials or test-tube rearing systems include (by weight) 1 part berry tissue for oviposition substrate, 1.5 parts dry diet media for carbohydrate, 7 parts clean water for moisture, and ~5 grains (0.8 mg) of dry yeast for protein. One or two blackberry or blueberry fruits, serving as edible oviposition substrates, doubled or tripled pupal and adult production within standard (68 mL) vials at rearing temperatures from 21 to 25oC. Identical mean body size for both reared and wild-caught SWD indicated nutritional similarity between our artificial diet and the fly’s own natural food i.e., berries. Preventing fruit-borne molds from contaminating media requires the surface sterilization of berries in an 80% or 90% ethanol bath for ~5 min followed by triple rinsing in clean water. Water rinses importantly prevented acute alcohol poisoning of adult D. suzukii, an ethanol intolerant species. In addition to promoting SWD oviposition, fruit also prevents the buildup of fly-killing bacterial biofilms. Triethylamine [50%], a common fly anesthetic, proved acutely toxic to SWD adults. Alternatively, a 5-s blast of carbon dioxide gas or exposure to cold temperatures (4 – 5oC) for =30 minutes can more safely immobilize adult SWD.