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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Plant Polymer Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #320120

Research Project: Improved Utilization of Proteinaceous Crop Co-Products

Location: Plant Polymer Research

Title: Effect of salt and ethanol addition on zein-starch dough and bread quality

item SMITH, BRENNAN - University Of Idaho
item Bean, Scott
item Selling, Gordon
item Sessa, David
item ARAMOUNI, FADI - Kansas State University

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/3/2017
Publication Date: 2/2/2017
Publication URL:
Citation: Smith, B., Bean, S.R., Selling, G.W., Sessa, D.J., Aramouni, F.M. 2017. Effect of salt and ethanol addition on zein-starch dough and bread quality. Journal of Food Science. 82(3):613-621.

Interpretive Summary: Celiac disease afflicts ~1% of the world’s population and is a growing concern. Foods catering to celiac suffers must be devoid of gluten (a type of protein found in wheat, barley, and rye). Gluten-free foods may be of poorer quality than foods that are produced with gluten, especially traditional leavened bread products. It has been hypothesized that the lack of a protein network is one reason for the general poor quality of gluten-free foods, especially breads. In addition, the protein networks in wheat have been attributed to prolonged shelf-life of bread and an increase in quality in terms of softness and volume. Corn protein (zein) has been studied as an alternative to gluten in the production of bread. To date the results have been less than satisfactory with the main complaint being insufficient rising and the resulting hard loaf. Beneficial results have been obtained when using systems where zein protein-zein protein interactions are maximized. In an effort to better understand what factors influence the ability of zein proteins to interact, the impact of various salts and other reagents on dough quality was undertaken. This information will be beneficial to bread manufacturers that are interested in producing non-gluten containing products to improve the lives of those who suffer from celiac disease. By developing an additional higher value product from corn protein, those companies involved in the production of ethanol from corn will benefit.

Technical Abstract: Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Littlework has been completed to describemechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein–starchmixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein–80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na2SO4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein–starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of ß-ME had minimal softening effects on zein–starch dough. Specific volumes of zein–starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality.