Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/10/2015
Publication Date: 10/2/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61623
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Johnson, L.K., Picklo, M.J. 2015. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals. Journal of Nutrition. 145:2265-72.
Interpretive Summary: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however it is unknown if all sugars have the same health effects. We compared 2 weeks daily intake of three sugars (honey, sucrose (white sugar)and high fructose corn syrup) on blood sugar and insulin, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers in individuals with normal blood sugar levels and pre-diabetic individuals. We found that there were no differences between the three types of sugars consumed (equal to about 1-16 oz. soda) and the responses in the metabolic markers tested, however, daily sugar intake increased blood triglyceride levels in all individuals.
Technical Abstract: Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS55)) on blood glucose and insulin, body weight, blood pressure (BP), lipids, and inflammatory markers in glucose tolerant (GT) and impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) individuals. Methods: In a crossover design, participants (GT, n=28; IGT, n=27) consumed, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2-4 wk washout between treatments. Body weight, BP, inflammatory markers, serum lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were completed pre- and post-treatment. OGTT incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin were determined. Results: Body weight, glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the IGT vs GT at baseline. Analysis of groups by treatment showed no significant differences in glucose, insulin, HOMA or the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin by treatment; however, responses were significantly higher in IGT vs GT. Body weight was unchanged. Systolic BP was unchanged while diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugars intake. An interaction effect (status x sweetener) was observed in hsCRP. No treatment effect was observed in IL-6. LDL levels were higher in the IGT group at both pre- and post-treatment while HDL was not different as a result of status or treatment. TG levels increased significantly from pre- to post-treatment across all sugar treatments. Conclusion: Although the daily intake of 50g of carbohydrate from honey, sugar and HFCS for 14 days resulted in similar effects on measures of glycemia and inflammation and significant increases in fasting TG were observed in response to all treatments in both GT and IGT individuals.