Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2015
Publication Date: 10/24/2016
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2016. The global nature of avian influenza. In: Swayne, D.E., editor. Animal Influenza. 2nd edition. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell. p.177-201.
Technical Abstract: Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds on all seven continents, but the largest number of detection have been in North America and Europe where intensive surveillance is conducted in poultry and wild birds. Since 1959, there have been 35 epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry and wild birds. The largest such being the H5N1 HPAI epizootic, that began in China in 1996 and continues today. This epizootic has involved 67 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America, and has affected more than 400 million birds.