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Research Project: IMPROVE GRAIN SORGHUM END-USE QUALITY & UTILIZATION BY IDENTIFYING THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO FOOD & FEED...

Location: Grain Quality and Structure Research

Title: Effect of salt and ethanol addition on zein-starch dough and bread quality

Author
item Smith, Brennan - University Of Idaho
item Bean, Scott
item Selling, Gordon
item Sessa, David
item Aramouni, Fadi - Kansas State University

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/18/2017
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
Citation: Smith, B., Bean, S.R., Selling, G.W., Sessa, D.J., Aramouni, F. 2017. Effect of salt and ethanol addition on zein-starch dough and bread quality. Journal of Food Science. 82:613-621. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13637.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13637

Interpretive Summary: Breads made from non-wheat flours are made from thick batters and are lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic doughs from non-wheat proteins would allow a wider range of gluten-free products and would improve the quality of such foods. To identify the factors responsible for dough development in corn protein-starch mixtures and their influence on the resultant bread quality, a mixture of 20% corn protein-80% corn starch was mixed with water, ethanol-water mixtures and various salts. Addition of low levels of chaotropic salts or ethanol produced a softer, more wheat like dough. Reduction of sodium chloride in the formula produced better bread. These findings could lead to the production of higher quality bread produced from non-wheat proteins.

Technical Abstract: Breads made from non-wheat flours are made from thick batters and are lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic doughs from non-wheat proteins would allow a wider range of gluten-free products and would improve the quality of such foods. Only recently has the mechanism of zein functionality in dough been described and little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify the factors responsible for dough development in zein-starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein-80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. The salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na2SO4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0-2M for their influence on the properties of zein-starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations made a softer more wheat-like dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough. With increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 there was a coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. ß-ME had a slight softening effect on the mixing properties of zein-starch dough. Specific volumes of zein-starch bread increased as NaCl content in the bread formula decreased. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula was found to increase bread quality.