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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Wooster, Ohio » Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #318199

Research Project: Genetic and Biochemical Basis of Soft Winter Wheat End-Use Quality

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research

Title: Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

item MA, FENGYUN - The Ohio State University
item Baik, Byung-Kee

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2015
Publication Date: 5/1/2016
Publication URL:
Citation: Ma, F., Baik, B.-K. 2016. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread. Cereal Chemistry. 93:314-322.

Interpretive Summary: Soft red winter (SRW) wheat is known for its much lower protein content than other classes of wheat, but has a large variation in gluten protein strength. SRW wheat possessing strong gluten protein has great potential to be used for the production of steamed bread (SB), which is widely consumed in many Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the U.S. We examined the potential and performance of SRW wheat varieties for producing SB, identified the grain traits important for SB production and assessed the significance of gluten protein composition on SB quality. Six of 19 SRW wheat varieties produced SB of good quality, even though their flour protein contents ranged from 6.6 to 9.9%, much lower than the protein content of typical steamed bread flour. It is likely that the relatively strong gluten protein of those varieties compensated for their low protein contents in the production of good quality steamed bread. Protein content, gluten protein strength and dough mixing properties showed associations with the quality attributes of SB. An effective prediction for the steamed bread making quality of wheat flour was possible with an equation developed using gluten protein quality and quantity, and dough mixing property measurement factors. SRW wheat varieties carrying the genes responsible for the production of strong gluten protein molecules yielded SB with relatively high quality scores. We determined that SRW wheat varieties possessing strong gluten protein and appropriate dough mixing properties could be used successfully for the production of SB, despite their relatively low protein contents. This information will serves as a guideline for breeding SRW wheat, for SB production and for identifying and garnering wheat grain for the domestic and export SB wheat markets.

Technical Abstract: Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of acceptable to good quality with a total score greater than 70. Both protein content and dough strength-related parameters, including SDSS volume, wet/dry gluten content and midline peak time (MPT), were significantly associated with the quality attributes of steamed bread. The rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) setback value exhibited significant negative correlations with specific volume, smoothness, crumb structure and total score of steamed bread. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that 89% of variability in total scores of steamed bread could be predicted from SDSS volume, wet gluten content and MPT. Contributions of high molecular weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) 7*+8 and 5+10 to flour characteristics, specific volume, stress relaxation score and total score of steamed bread were greater than those of their counterpart allelic variations. Absence of the 1B/1R translocation in SRW wheat varieties was desirable for the production of steamed bread.