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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #317893

Research Project: Evaluation of the Chemical and Physical Properties of Low-Value Agricultural Crops and Products to Enhance Their Use and Value

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Reduction of total glucosinolates in canola meal via thermal treatment and fungal bioprocessing

item CROAT, JASON - South Dakota State University
item Berhow, Mark
item KARKI, BISHNU - South Dakota State University
item MUTHUKUMARAPPAN, KASIVISWANATHAN - South Dakota State University
item GIBBONS, WILLIAM - South Dakota State University

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/8/2015
Publication Date: 8/12/2015
Citation: Croat, J.R., Berhow, M.A., Karki, B., Muthukumarappan, K., Gibbons, W.R. 2015. Reduction of total glucosinolates in canola meal via thermal treatment and fungal bioprocessing [abstract]. Phytochemical Society of North America.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: On a worldwide basis, canola (Brassica napus) meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source for livestock. A general limitation of Brassica spp. meals is the presence of glucosinolates (GLS). GLS and the enzyme myrosinase are compartmentally stored separately in the plant. Upon disruption of plant tissues, myrosinase cleaves glucose from GLS and releases toxic compounds such as nitriles, thiocyanates, and isothiocyanates to defend the plant. For this reason canola was bred to contain lower levels of GLS and erucic acid. However feed inclusion rates are still limited to 25-30% of livestock diets. The objective of this research was to develop a microbial process to metabolize GLS and the resulting breakdown products into non-toxic components, to enable higher inclusion levels in livestock rations. An additional objective was to boost the protein levels and digestibility. Cold pressed and hexane extracted canola meals were autoclaved (thermal treatment) then processed using several metabolically diverse fungal cultures. Aurobasidium pullulans, Trichoderma reesei, Fusarium venenatum, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Mucor circinelloides are grown in solid-state and submerged culture at 50 and 10% solid loading rate, respectively. Total GLS levels were reduced up to 65.5 and 79.8% by thermal treatments while microbial conversion further reduced GLS up to 97.8 and 97.5% in solid-state and submerged fungal incubation, respectively. Optimized trials will be analyzed for toxic GLS breakdown compounds.