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Research Project: Molecular, Cellular, and Regulatory Aspects of Nutrition During Development

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Formula carbohydrate content differentially shapes the microbial community patterns and NEC incidence in premature pigs

item Burrin, Douglas - Doug
item CALL, LEE - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item STOLL, BARBARA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item AKINKUOTU, ADESOLA - Baylor College Of Medicine
item OLUTOYE, OLUYINKA - Baylor College Of Medicine
item AJAMI, NADIM - Baylor College Of Medicine
item PETROSINO, JOSEPH - Baylor College Of Medicine
item WITTKE, ANJA - Mead Johnson

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2015
Publication Date: 5/6/2015
Citation: Burrin, D.G., Call, L., Stoll, B., Akinkuotu, A., Olutoye, O., Ajami, N., Petrosino, J., Wittke, A. 2015. Formula carbohydrate content differentially shapes the microbial community patterns and NEC incidence in premature pigs [abstract]. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, May 6-9, 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 60(Suppl. 1):748-749.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth, formula feeding, and microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Microbial colonization is thought to begin at birth and is strongly influenced by diet carbohydrate content. We previously showed that feeding a formula composed of lactose vs. maltodextrin protects against NEC in preterm pigs, yet the impact on the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiome was unknown. The aim of this study was to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to quantify the GIT microbial communities in the preterm piglet at birth and after feeding formulas containing either lactose or corn syrup solids and correlate these findings with NEC phenotype. Preterm piglets delivered by cesarean-section at 103 d gestation were sampled within 4-6 hr birth (NB) or given total parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by gradual introduction of enteral formula feeding from 3-7 d. Pigs were fed formulas matched in nutrient content but containing either lactose (L), corn syrup solids (CS) or 1:1 mix (MIX). DNA was isolated from ileal and colonic mucosa as well as stomach, ileum, and colon contents, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed using QIIME and R. Total bacterial DNA load was measured by qPCR. Bacterial DNA was detected but in relative low abundance throughout the GIT of NB vs formula fed pigs (10(2) vs. 10(4) 16S/ng DNA). However, the 16S DNA abundance was not different between either the diet groups or healthy vs. NEC groups. The NB microbiome displayed greater diversity than all formula-fed pigs, based on a number of observed Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). NEC vs. healthy phenotype and CS vs. L formula both showed decreased diversity. These differences in diversity were greater in mucosal-associated vs. luminal DNA samples. The dominant orders among all groups were bacilli, clostridia, and gammaproteobacteria. The "Clostridium" and "Escherichia-Shigella" represented about 50% of the observed genera. The abundance of "Clostridium" was increased, whereas that of "Escherichia-Shigella" was decreased in CS vs. L and NEC vs healthy pigs, respectively. We conclude that the newborn, cesarean-derived preterm pig GIT contains 16S rDNA in low abundance with a diverse microbiome signature dominated by bacilli, clostridia, and gammaproteobacteria. Our results in piglets are consistent with recent reports in human preterm infants. Feeding formula containing lactose vs. corn syrup solids selects for greater microbiota diversity and is associated with lower NEC incidences.