Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2016
Publication Date: 7/26/2016
Citation: Oscar, T.P. 2016. Acquisition of data by whole sample enrichment, real-time polymerase chain reaction for development of a process risk model for Salmonella and chicken parts. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000538.
Interpretive Summary: Salmonella bacteria are a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and throughout the world. Models that predict consumer exposure and response to Salmonella on food produced by specific scenarios are valuable tools for preventing this risk to public health. Therefore, a study was undertaken to develop a model that could predict consumer exposure and response to different types of Salmonella on chicken parts produced by a specific scenario. Data for model development were collected using a new and highly sensitive DNA-based method that was able to detect and identify a single cell of Salmonella on chicken parts. Results of the study showed that the model could predict the risk of salmonellosis as well as identify risk factors. The main risk factors identified were cross-contamination of a cooked chicken part with a high risk serotype of Salmonella during serving and consumption of that chicken part by someone from the high risk population, which included the elderly, the very young, and the immunocompromised.
Technical Abstract: Process risk models predict consumer exposure and response to pathogens in food produced by specific scenarios. A process risk model for Salmonella and chicken parts was developed that consisted of four unit operations (pathogen events): 1) meal preparation (contamination); 2) cooking (death); 3) serving (cross-contamination); and 4) consumption (dose-response). Whole sample enrichment real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to acquire data for development of the model. The process risk model was created in an Excel spreadsheet and was simulated with @Risk. Salmonella prevalence on raw chicken parts (wings, breasts, thighs, and drumsticks) at meal preparation was 16% (25/160) whereas incidence of Salmonella cross-contamination of cooked chicken during serving was 12% (5/40). Six serotypes of Salmonella were isolated with most being Typhimurium var 5- or Typhimurium. Number of Salmonella (minimum, mean, maximum) was 0, 0.4, 0.9 log on raw chicken parts at meal preparation whereas cooked chicken was cross-contaminated with 0, 0.4, 0.7 log of Salmonella during serving. A model that considered normal risk and high risk serotypes and normal and high risk consumers was used to predict dose-response. For the chicken parts investigated and for the specific scenario simulated, the process risk model predicted that the risk of salmonellosis was uncertain, fitted a normal distribution, and ranged from 22 to 58 with a mean of 38 cases per 100,000 chicken parts. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the primary risk factors for salmonellosis were cross-contamination of cooked chicken with a high risk serotype of Salmonella during serving and then consumption of that serving by someone from the high risk population. The process risk model was successfully used to assess risk of salmonellosis as well as identify risk factors for acquiring salmonellosis from chicken parts produced by a specific scenario.