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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #316733

Research Project: Food Factors to Prevent Obesity and Related Diseases

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial

Author
item Raynor, Hollie - University Of Tennessee
item Anderson, Andrea - Wake Forest University
item Miller, Gary - Wake Forest University
item Reeves, Rebecca - University Of Texas
item Delahanty, Linda - Massachusetts General Hospital
item Vitolins, Mara - Wake Forest University
item Harper, Patricia - Consultant
item Mobley, Connie - University Of Nevada
item Konersman, Kati - Baylor University Medical Center
item Raatz, Susan

Submitted to: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/29/2014
Publication Date: 5/1/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61259
Citation: Raynor, H.A., Anderson, A., Miller, G.D., Reeves, R., Delahanty, L.M., Vitolins, M., Harper, P., Mobley, C., Konersman, K., Raatz, S.K. 2015. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 115(5):731-742.

Interpretive Summary: Comparison of dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) groups at 12 months. The ILI in participants received reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacements. A food frequency questionnaire assessed dietary intake At 12 months, ILI participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE participants. ILI participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than DSE participants. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming two or more meal replacements per day than participants consuming less than one meal replacement per day met most fat-related and food group recommendations. Conclusions The partial meal replacement plan consumed by ILI participants was related to superior diet quality.

Technical Abstract: Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objective To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months. Design A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months. Participants/setting From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted c2 tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater percentage of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants than Diabetes Support and Education participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within Intensive Lifestyle Intervention, a greater percentage of participants consuming two or more meal replacements per day than participants consuming less than one meal replacement per day met most fat-related and food group recommendations. Conclusions The partial meal replacement plan consumed by Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants was related to superior diet quality.