Location: Mosquito and Fly ResearchTitle: Essential oils of enhinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): a relationship between chemical profile and biting deterrence and larvicidal activity against mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) Author
|Ali, Abbas - University Of Mississippi|
|Tabanca, Nurhayat - University Of Mississippi|
|Ozek, Gulmira - Anadolu Universtiy|
|Ozek, Temel - Anadolu Universtiy|
|Aytak, Zeki - Gaza University|
|Bernier, Ulrich - Uli|
|Baser, K.h.c - Anadolu Universtiy|
|Khan, Ikhlas - University Of Mississippi|
Submitted to: Journal of Medical Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2014
Publication Date: 1/1/2015
Citation: Ali, A., Tabanca, N., Ozek, G., Ozek, T., Aytak, Z., Bernier, U.R., Agramonte, N.M., Baser, K., Khan, I.A. 2015. Essential oils of enhinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): a relationship between chemical profile and biting deterrence and larvicidal activity against mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 52(1):93-100.
Interpretive Summary: Scientists at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, the University of Mississippi National Center for Natural Products Research and the University of Florida collaborated with researchers from the Andolu University and Gazi University in Turkey to identify chemicals in the flower, leaf and stem oils of a local Turkish flowering plant called, " Echinophora lamondiana." The plant is used in folk medicine to heal wounds and as a treatment for ulcers. The oil was tested for its ability to kill and repel mosquitoes. The flower oil killed some of the Yellow Fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) larvae Neither the stem or leaf oil were toxic to this mosquito. The oils were more toxic to a mosquito called Anopheles quadrimaculatus than it was to the Yellow Fever mosquito. This is important because this mosquito can transmit malaria to humans. A few of the compounds in the oil were shown to repel mosquitoes; although, not as repellent as the well known standard repellent, DEET. The results of this study benefit people at risk of mosquito attack throughout the world, and may be of specific use to researchers and commercial entities that are developing new repellents for personal protection from mosquito attack.
Technical Abstract: The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B.Yildiz et Z.Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of E. lamondiana were d-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), aphellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm2 N, Ndiethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (þ)-d-3-carene, (R)-(-)-a-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and a-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than d-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.