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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Byron, Georgia » Fruit and Tree Nut Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #316571

Research Project: Breeding Stone Fruit Adapted to the Production Environment of the Southeastern United States

Location: Fruit and Tree Nut Research

Title: Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract]

Author
item SATPUTE, ADITI - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item GROSSER, JUDE - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item Chen, Chunxian
item GMITTER JR., FRED - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item LING, PAUL - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item YU, QIBIN - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item GROSSER, MELINDA - UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
item CHASE, CHRISTINE - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Submitted to: American Society of Horticulture Science Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2014
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Citation: Satpute, A.D., Grosser, J.W., Chen, C., Gmitter Jr., F.G., Ling, P., Yu, Q., Grosser, M.R., Chase, C.D. 2014. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract]. American Society of Horticulture Science Meeting. Paper No. 258.

Interpretive Summary: Cybridization is a process of combination of a nuclear genome and an organelle genome of different sources, generating a new genotype (cybrid) and likely resulting in some phenotypic changes due to introduction of a new organelle genome and stimulation of new gene interactions. Cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplast are valuable materials for further comparison of these changes, and use as advanced selections for potential release if some desired traits are significantly improved. Therefore, cybridization should be an additional approach to plant breeding.

Technical Abstract: In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments. The first experiment was conducted to potentially generate a seedless triploid by fusing diploid protoplasts of embryogenic ‘Dancy’ tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) suspension cultured cells with haploid ‘Ruby Red’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) protoplasts derived from microspores. Only one triploid was recovered, but several diploid plants with typical grapefruit morphology were also regenerated. In the second experiment, protoplasts derived from embryogenic ‘Dancy’ tangerine suspension culture were fused with non-embryogenic protoplasts from ‘Duncan’ grapefruit leaves. The fruits from the resulting trees resembled grapefruit in morphology and fruit type, and maintained good fruit flavor and quality. Furthermore, fruits obtained from trees in the first experiment retained excellent quality throughout the summer, when commercial grapefruit rapidly lose quality. Fruits on these trees remain firm with exceptional sweetness and good flavor into August, with no seed germination. The regenerants obtained in the protoplast fusion experiments were confirmed as cybrids by genetic marker analysis. The nuclear genotype of the test grapefruit was determined at seven nuclear SSR marker loci, with all alleles identical to those of commercial Ruby Red grapefruit. The mitochondrial genome in the test grapefruit trees was shown by mitochondrial intron marker analysis to have originated from the embryogenic Dancy cultures, whereas the plastid genomes of individual trees originated from either fusion partner. Apparently in the first experiment, haploid protoplast preparations also contained diploid protoplasts, which fused with the Dancy suspension culture protoplasts, resulting in cybrid cells following the loss of the Dancy nucleus. Apart from the value of altered fruit quality attributes, these plants provide an opportunity to understand the contributions of cytoplasmic organelle genetics to important citrus fruit breeding objectives.