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ARS Home » Midwest Area » East Lansing, Michigan » Sugarbeet and Bean Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #316547

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Dry Bean Nutritional and Processing Qualities

Location: Sugarbeet and Bean Research

Title: Carbohydrate profile of a dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) panel encompassing broad genetic variability for cooking time

Author
item Wiesinger, Jason
item Cichy, Karen
item HOOPER, SHARON - Michigan State University
item MORENO, DIMAS - Colorado State University
item BRICK, MARK - Colorado State University
item THOMPSON, HENRY - Colorado State University

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2016
Publication Date: 11/2/2016
Citation: Wiesinger, J.A., Cichy, K.A., Hooper, S., Moreno, D.E., Brick, M., Thompson, H. 2016. Carbohydrate profile of a dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) panel encompassing broad genetic variability for cooking time. Cereal Chemistry. 94(1):135-141.

Interpretive Summary: Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America where they help meet protein and mineral requirements. Long cooking times are a major constraint to greater utilization of dry beans. Cooking time is influenced by genetic factors however, the underlying mechanism for genetic variability in cooking time has not been established. Storage time and conditions also influence cooking time in beans, and the mechanism responsible is complex but generally is related to pectin solubility within cell walls. The goal of this research was to establish a panel of dry bean germplasm with diverse cooking times and measure carbohydrates to test the hypothesis that dietary fiber and resistant starch levels are indicators of genetic and environmental variability for cooking time. Cooking times were weakly correlated with total starch in the raw seed (r = -0.434, P = 0.002) and highly correlated with percent resistant starch in raw seed (r = 0.936, P < 0.0001). The resistant starch retained in cooked seed (r = 0.940, P < 0.0001) was also highly correlated with cook time. These findings indicate starch composition as an important determinant of cooking time in beans and also suggest different nutritional outcomes from fast and slow cooking beans.

Technical Abstract: Dry beans are typically consumed as a whole food and cooking time is one of the most important processing quality attributes. While significant genetic variability for cooking time exists, a clear underlying mechanism has not been established. Genetic determinants of processing quality in grain crops relate to starch composition. Environmental variability of cooking time in dry beans appears to relate to changes in soluble dietary fiber (pectin). The purpose of this research was to establish a panel of bean germplasm with variability in cooking time and to use the panel to test the hypothesis that starch and dietary fiber are major underlying contributors to genetic variability in cooking time. The panel of 12 dry bean accessions had cooking times ranging from 18 to 70 min post-harvest and 26 to 89 min after a year of storage. Post-harvest cooking time variability was not related to dietary fiber, including insoluble and soluble fiber. Cooking times were weakly correlated with total starch in the raw seed (r = -0.434, P = 0.002), which ranged from 38 to 43% and highly correlated with percent resistant starch in raw seed (r = 0.936, P < 0.0001), which ranged from 12 to 30% post-harvest and 16 to 36% after a year of storage. The resistant starch retained in cooked seed (r = 0.940, P < 0.0001) was also highly correlated with cook time. These findings indicate starch composition as an important determinant of cooking time in beans and also suggest different nutritional outcomes from fast and slow cooking beans based on resistant starch levels.