|WANNER, JUERGEN - Kurt Kitzing Co|
|TABANCA, NURHAYAT - University Of Mississippi|
|ZEHL, MARTIN - University Of Vienna|
|JIROVETZ, LEOPOLD - University Of Vienna|
|SCHMIDT, ERICH - University Of Vienna|
|PATSCHKA, ANDREAS - Austrian University|
|ALI, ABBAS - University Of Mississippi|
|KHANB, IKHLAS - University Of Mississippi|
Submitted to: Current Bioactive Compounds
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/7/2015
Publication Date: 9/1/2015
Citation: Wanner, J., Tabanca, N., Zehl, M., Jirovetz, L., Schmidt, E., Patschka, A., Ali, A., Estep, A., Becnel, J.J., Li, A.Y., Khanb, I.A. 2015. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract. Current Bioactive Compounds. 11(1):13-22.
Interpretive Summary: Mosquitoes and ticks are vector of pathogenic diseases affecting human health and livestock production. The primary approach used for vector control relies mainly on chemical pesticides. However, frequent use of synthetic chemicals can lead to the development of pesticide resistance. There is an urgent need to develop alternative pesticides to supplement the chemicals for control of a wide variety of insect and tick vectors. USDA ARS scientists are part of an international collaboration that investigates the utility of plant extracts or phytochemicals as potential natural pesticides. With the aid of modern chemical analysis instruments, the team has identified the major chemical components of the seed oil and methanol extract of Euonymus europaeus, an evergreen shrub or small tree native throughout most of Europe and parts of Asia. Repellency and toxicity of these plant extracts and several major chemical compounds against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) were evaluated using various bioassay techniques.
Technical Abstract: Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts of abietadiene and -triene, dihydroagarofurane sesquiterpenes, and alkaloids of the sesquiterpene pyridine type. Breakdown products of the latter can be found by transesterification with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. In the seed oil, glyceryl acetates are slowly formed through cleavage of alkaloids and triglycerides. Bioassay results indicated both the seed oil and methanol extract had weak repellent and toxicity activity against the yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), and were ineffective in repelling the long star tick (Amblyomma americanum) at the concentrations tested.