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Title: Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats

item Reding, Michael - Mike
item Ranger, Christopher
item Sampson, Blair
item Werle, Christopher
item OLIVER, JASON - Tennessee State University
item SCHULTZ, PETER - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2015
Publication Date: 6/26/2015
Publication URL:
Citation: Reding, M.E., Ranger, C.M., Sampson, B.J., Werle, C.T., Oliver, J.B., Schultz, P.P. 2015. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats. Journal of Economic Entomology. DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov174.

Interpretive Summary: Invasive ambrosia beetles are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries, and Xylosandrus germanus is the most damaging ambrosia beetle in Ohio. Attacks by ambrosia beetles cause wilting, dieback, and death of nursery trees. Previously, whether the ambrosia beetles attacking nursery trees originated within the nursery or from surrounding habitats was unknown. The current research determined that X. germanus and other ambrosia beetles invade nurseries from wooded areas adjacent to the nurseries, and move further into nurseries as the season progresses. We also determined that movment of ambrosia beetles into nurseries was related to degree-days, which could be used to predict timing of that movement. This research indicates that intercepting beetles with traps or trap trees may be an effective technique for managing ambrosia beetles in nurseries, which would reduce reliance on conventional insecticides.

Technical Abstract: Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nurseries or surrounding habitats. Flight activity of X. germanus was monitored in nurseries and adjacent wooded areas to determine the source of beetles infesting nurseries, and characterize their movement within nurseries. Ethanol-baited bottle traps were positioned within wooded areas adjacent to commercial nurseries and within nurseries at various distances from the nursery woodlot interface. Flight activity of overwintered X. germanus occurred in wooded areas adjacent to nurseries before occurrence within nurseries. There was a relationship between degree-days and the occurrence of X. germanus at each distance, with greater degree-days needed as the distance to adjacent woodlots increased. Greater flight activity in woodlots was needed before beetles occurred 50 m and 100 m into nurseries than at 13 m and 25 m. Xylosandrus germanus appeared to move into nurseries from adjacent wooded areas, and occurrence within nurseries decreased as distance from wooded areas increased. Trees in the interior of nurseries would appear to be subjected to less attack pressure than trees near the nursery border. Intercepting beetles as they move into nurseries might be an effective strategy to reduce attack pressure on valuable trees.