Location: Mosquito and Fly ResearchTitle: Rift Valley fever: a mosquito-borne emerging disease Author
Submitted to: Annual Review of Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2015
Publication Date: 3/1/2016
Citation: Linthicum, K., Britch, S.C., Anyamba, A. 2016. Rift Valley fever: a mosquito-borne emerging disease. Annual Review Of Entomology. 61:395-415. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023819.
Interpretive Summary: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic emerging viral disease of livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is closely associated with very high rainfall conditions. Since first described in the early 1930s it was quickly determined that the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, but could also be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissues and fluids. This comprehensive review will be a primary reference for expanding scientific, public health, agriculture, and government stakeholders. In addition to this review focusing on entomological, ecological and predictive aspects of RVF there are a number of other reviews emphasizing other aspects of this important emerging disease.
Technical Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) is mosquito-borne zoonotic emerging infectious viral disease caused by RVF virus (RVFV) that presents significant threats to global public health and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. RVFV is listed as a select agent with significant concern for international spread and use in bioterrorism. RVFV has caused large, devastating periodic epizootics/epidemics in Africa over the last ~60 years, with severe economic and nutritional impacts on humans from illness and livestock loss. In the last 15 years alone RVF caused tens of thousands of human cases, hundreds of human deaths, and >100,000 domestic animal deaths. Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are particularly susceptible to RVF and serve as amplifying hosts for the virus. This review highlights recent research on RVF, focusing on ecology, transmission dynamics, and use of environmental and climate data to predict disease outbreaks. Important directions for future research are also discussed.