Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin ResearchTitle: Co-exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize-based foods in central america: guatemala as a case study
|Torres, Olga - National Institute Of Public Health (INSP)|
|Matute, Jorge - National Institute Of Public Health (INSP)|
|Gelineau-van Waes, Janee B - Creighton University|
|Maddox, Joyce - Creighton University|
|Gregory, Simone G - Duke University Medical Center|
|Ashley-koch, Allison - Duke University Medical Center|
Submitted to: Society of Toxicology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/22/2015
Publication Date: 3/22/2015
Citation: Voss, K.A., Torres, O., Matute, J., Gelineau-Van Waes, J., Maddox, J.R., Gregory, S., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Showker, A.J., Riley, R.T. 2015. Co-exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize-based foods in central america: guatemala as a case study. Society of Toxicology. March 22-26,2015. San Diego,California.
Technical Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human liver carcinogen having a genotoxic mechanism of action. The ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a liver cancer promoter in rats and trout. Both mycotoxins are found in maize so that the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, especially in Central America and other areas where maize is a dietary staple. A survey of the 22 departments of Guatemala was done in 2012 to determine the extent of co-contamination in shelled maize purchased from local markets: mycotoxin concentrations (n=640 samples) were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of ground maize extracts. FB1 was found in 99% of the samples at an average concentration of 1.8 + 0.09 (SEM) ppm. The highest concentration found in a single sample was 17.1 ppm. Mean levels in the individual departments ranged from 0.4 + 0.2 to 3.2 + 0.5 ppm. Lower levels of fumonisins B2 and B3 were found: the average concentration of total fumonisins (FB1+2+3) in all samples was 2.6 + 0.1 ppm. AFB1 was found in 206 of 572 (36%) clean (no visible mold) samples at an average concentration of 63 + 10 ppb. It was not found in Quetzaltenango while values in the remaining 21 departments ranged from 0.4 + 0.4 to 243 + 74 ppb. Concentrations of individual samples varied from “not detected” to very high levels of 707 to 2,656 ppb. In contrast to FB1, for which amounts in clean and moldy samples were similar, average AFB1 concentrations were much higher in the moldy maize (1,136 + 239 ppb, n=68). Aflatoxin G2 was detected at low levels in only 5 samples. The findings indicate that significant co-exposure to FB1 and AFB1 is possible in areas where foods are made from co-contaminated maize.