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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #314728

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Enteric Viral Diseases of Poultry

Location: Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases Research

Title: Have we found an optimal insertion site in a Newcastle disease virus vector to express a foreign gene for vaccine and gene therapy purposes?

Author
item Yu, Qingzhong

Submitted to: British Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2015
Publication Date: 3/18/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60769
Citation: Yu, Q. 2015. Have we found an optimal insertion site in a Newcastle disease virus vector to express a foreign gene for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. British Journal of Virology. 2(2):15-18.

Interpretive Summary: Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause a serious disease of poultry, resulting in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Some of low virulent strains of NDV have been used as vaccines to control Newcastle disease. Since the establishment of a molecular technique to rescue an infectious NDV from cloned complimentary deoxyribonucleic acids, many strains of NDV have been developed as vectors to express a foreign gene for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. This manuscript reviewed the effects of different insertion sites in NDV vectors on the levels of foreign gene expression. The available data showed that the P and M gene junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression. The gene junction regions between the M and F, and F and HN genes can also be used as insertion sites for a moderate level of foreign gene expression, whereas the NP and P gene junction region is not a good insertion site for foreign gene expression.

Technical Abstract: Using reverse genetics technology, many strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been developed as vectors to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign gene is usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit. Evaluation of vaccine and gene therapy candidates in clinical trials revealed different levels of protection against targeted pathogen challenge or anti-cancer efficacy. Although many factors can influence the efficacy of vaccine and gene therapy, the expression level of foreign genes is undoubtedly the most important one. This manuscript reviewed the effects of different insertion sites in NDV vectors on the levels of foreign gene expression. The available data suggested that the P and M gene junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression through an independent transcription unit. The gene junction regions between the M and F, and F and HN genes can also be used as insertion sites for a moderate level of foreign gene expression, whereas the NP and P gene junction region is not a good insertion site for foreign gene expression. The optimal insertion sites for foreign gene expression through other approaches may need further investigation.