|MILLER, JAMES - Louisiana State University|
|TERRILL, THOMAS - Fort Valley State University|
|ACHARYA, MOHAN - University Of Arkansas|
Submitted to: Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2016
Publication Date: 1/15/2016
Citation: Burke, J.M., Miller, J., Terrill, T., Wood, E.L., Acharya, M. 2016. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs. Veterinary Parasitology. 215:1-4. 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.11002.
Interpretive Summary: Alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics remain critical due to the prevalence of dewormer resistance. Some organic certifiers allow the use of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) to control barber pole worms, and recently two forms appeared on the market for small ruminants along with another from Australia. Scientists at USDA, ARS in Booneville, AR, Louisiana State University, University of Arkansas, and Fort Valley State University determined that Copasure, available to treat copper deficiency in cattle and small ruminants, reduced the percentage of barber pole worms better than the other forms, and reduced fecal egg counts in lambs, a sign of worm infection. The results are important to organic and conventional farmers, extension specialists, and scientists with the aim of controlling barber pole worms in sheep and goats, which can save the industry lost income due to morbidity and mortality.
Technical Abstract: Alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics remain critical due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources to control Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin ewe lambs that were 106 ± 1.3 days of age (born February) and 21.6 ± 1.3 kg were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n = 10) or 2 g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure® (COP; n = 9; Animax Ltd.), Copper Oxide – Wire Form (AUS; n = 10; Pharmplex), or UltracruzTM (ULT; n = 9; Santa Cruz Animal HealthTM). Lambs grazed bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227 g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% CP) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Blood and feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled feces were cultured on day 0, and pooled feces from each treatment on day 7 to determine gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was Haemonchus contortus (87%). The FEC were reduced (treatment × day, P = 0.025) in COP (P < 0.001), AUS (P = 0.0045), and ULT (P = 0.027) groups compared with CON; COP was reduced more so than AUS (P = 0.037) and ULT (P = 0.008). The FEC were reduced in all lamb groups by day 14, but COP was the only source that reduced FEC relative to CON (P = 0.004). The PCV was different (P = 0.01) on day 0 and used as a covariate thereafter. The PCV of COP was greater than CON lambs (P = 0.004), but otherwise PCV was similar among treatments. The percentage of H. contortus was reduced from 89% in CON to 8% in COP, 62% in AUS, and 69% in ULT feces. Under the conditions of this experiment, COP had greater efficacy in reducing H. contortus than other forms of COWP.