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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Western Human Nutrition Research Center » Obesity and Metabolism Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #314291

Research Project: Improving Public Health by Understanding Diversity in Diet, Body, and Brain Interactions

Location: Obesity and Metabolism Research

Title: Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice

Author
item Midtbø, Lisa - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Borkowska, Alison - Massachusetts General Hospital
item Bernhard, Annette - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Rønnevik, Alexander - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Lock, Erik-jan - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Fitzgerald, Michael - Massachusetts General Hospital
item Torstensen, Bente - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Liaset, Bjørn - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Brattelid, Trond - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes
item Pedersen, Theresa
item Newman, John
item Kristiansen, Karsten - University Of Copenhagen
item Madsen, Lise - National Institute Of Nutrition And Seafood Research, Nifes

Submitted to: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2015
Publication Date: 2/4/2015
Citation: Midtbø, L.K., Borkowska, A.G., Bernhard, A., Rønnevik, A.K., Lock, E., Fitzgerald, M.L., Torstensen, B.E., Liaset, B., Brattelid, T., Pedersen, T.L., Newman, J.W., Kristiansen, K., Madsen, L. 2015. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 26(6):585-595. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.12.005.

Interpretive Summary: Introduction of vegetable ingredients into fish feed affects the fatty acid composition of farmed salmon. Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed was reflected in the salmon fillets, and hence the mouse diets, led to a selective increase of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool of mouse livers. This was accompanied by increased levels of ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators in the liver, along with reduced amounts of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes in liver lipid profiles were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and accumulation of fat in the liver of mice. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the marked metabolic differences seen between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming, and indicate that the use of omega-3 rich vegetable oils may yield a healthier product.

Technical Abstract: Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct spillover effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed, reflected in the salmon, and hence also in the mice diets, led to a selectively increased abundance of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool in the livers of the mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of hepatic ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduced abundance of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the observed marked metabolic differences between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming.