|Nkomo, Eddie - Farma Tech International Corp.|
|Cook, Peter - Farma Tech International Corp.|
|Stark, John - Washington State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/6/2015
Publication Date: 6/4/2015
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Souder, S., Nkomo, E., Cook, P.J., Mackey, B.E., Stark, J.D. 2015. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 108(4):1612-1623. doi:10.1093/jee/tov137.
Interpretive Summary: Spread of alien fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) throughout the world has increased the need for improved detection, monitoring and control systems. Early detection and eradication methods for accidental introductions of invasive fruit flies in the United States involve deployment of large numbers of traps baited with the highly attractive male specific lures to detect such pests as Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly. Current methods employ liquid lures with liquid insecticides that pose environmental and worker safety challenges. As a result, replacing liquid mixtures with safer alternatives for detection, monitoring and control without compromising performance levels has been a primary research goal. An evaluation of a solid multi-lure and insecticide dispensers is a logical step towards reducing labor, improving trap densities, and eliminating environmentally unfriendly pesticides associated with trapping multiple species within a large area. Furthermore, understanding the degradation of attractants and insecticides by chemical analysis is wide open for research. This study conducted at Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, Hawaii, assessed the performance of solid lure wafers with DDVP insecticide in individual and combined formulations in monitoring and/or male annihilation technique (MAT) traps under Hawaiian climatic conditions. Result's indicate solid lure wafers with mixtures of attractants could be used as possible detection or MAT devices. Degradation of attractants and insecticide over time was predicted with a high level of confidence and results provide supportive data to deploy solid wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson Traps. Besides environmental benefits, the possibility of consolidating detection traps in large survey programs could dramatically reduce labor costs associated with deployment of numerous traps. Labor costs and deployment of traps is the biggest expense of large survey programs.
Technical Abstract: Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) are pests. Captures of B.dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration [Mallet ME (56%) >Mallet MR (31.2%) >Mallet MC (23.1%)]. Captures of B.cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK [Mallet BR (20.1%) = Mallet MR (18.3%) = Mallet MC (15.9%)]. Captures of B.dorsalis with fresh wafers compared with weathered wafers were significantly different after wk 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16 wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson Traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.