|TIWARI, VIJAY - Kansas State University|
|FRIEBE, BERND - Kansas State University|
|GILL, BIKRAM - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/4/2016
Publication Date: 6/30/2016
Citation: Tiwari, V.K., Faris, J.D., Friebe, B., Gill, B.S. 2016. Genome mapping. In: Wrigley, C., Walker, C.E., Corke, H., editors. Encyclopedia of Grain Science. Waltham, MA: Academic Press. pp. 365-375.
Technical Abstract: Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as landmarks along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of interest. There are two types of genome mapping: physical mapping and genetic linkage mapping, in which distances are measured in base pairs and recombination frequency, respectively. This article discusses the molecular basis for DNA markers, and the conventional as well as modern methods used to detect them. DNA markers closely linked to genes/traits of interest can be used by plant breeders to introgress the desired traits into elite germplasm more efficiently compared to conventional means of selection. Different types of segregating populations can be used for genetic linkage mapping, and physical mapping typically relies on the use of large DNA fragments ordered along a chromosome or known stretches of the DNA sequence of base pairs themselves. When combined, genetic linkage maps and physical maps provide a powerful tool for deciphering the locations of genes and recombination along the chromosomes. Comparative mapping is commonly used to evaluate the synteny of closely related plant species and provides insights regarding evolution. Presently, high-density genetic and physical maps are being used for gene discovery, genome analyses, translational genomics, and genomic selection.