Submitted to: American Leather Chemists Association Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2015
Publication Date: 6/10/2015
Citation: Taylor, M.M., Bumanlag, L.P., Brown, E.M., Liu, C. 2015. Reaction of protein and carbohydrates with EDC for purpose of making products with unique functional properties [abstract]. American Leather Chemists Association Meeting. p. 102.
Technical Abstract: Prior research from this laboratory has demonstrated the feasibility of using chemical and enzymatic treatments on protein and carbohydrate waste products for the purpose of making fillers to enhance the properties of leather. These treatments (microbial transglutaminase, genipin, and polyphenols in the form of vegetable tannins), were effective in reacting with gelatins, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and/or chitosan, alone or in combinations, to give products with interesting functional properties. All crosslinkers were either natural products and/or sustainable materials. In our continuing studies of chemoenzymatic methods to crosslink collagen and collagen by-products, we investigated the extensively reported 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) which has been used to crosslink proteins for the purpose of making biomaterials. As described by Olde Daminik and colleagues in 1996, this crosslinker reacts by the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which then form cross-links after reaction with free amine groups. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to the EDC-containing solution increased the rate of cross-linking. Based on this study and other recent studies in which EDC was used to modify fish gelatin and chitosan in order to make films with improved properties, we have begun to investigate the potential of using gelatin and chitosan, crosslinked by EDC to make unique products applicable to leather processing. This preliminary study will lead to a better understanding of the reactivity of carbodiimide and optimal conditions for developing appropriate products. Forthcoming studies, in which less expensive water soluble carbodiimides with desirable functionality, will be investigated for the purpose of making products (e.g., films, coatings, fillers, and/or flocculants for effluent treatment) that may have leather processing applications.