Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/11/2015
Publication Date: 7/14/2015
Citation: Singh, M., Byars, J.A., Liu, S.X. 2015. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality [abstract]. Institute of Food Technologists.
Technical Abstract: There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous, and low in sodium and fat. The goal of this work was to determine the effect of wheat flour replacement with navy bean flour on the properties of cakes and cake batters. Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at three levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared to wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.