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Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository

Title: Optimizing shoot culture media for Rubus germplasm: the effects of NH4+, NO3-, and total nitrogen

Author
item POOTHONG, SUKALYA - Oregon State University
item Reed, Barbara

Submitted to: In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plants
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/5/2016
Publication Date: 3/4/2016
Citation: Poothong, S., Reed, B.M. 2016. Optimizing shoot culture media for Rubus germplasm: the effects of NH4+, NO3-, and total nitrogen. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plants. 52(3):265-275. doi: 10.1007/s11627-016-9750-0.

Interpretive Summary: Modeling studies on the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry indicated that the amounts and ratios of nitrogen coumpounds were very important. In this study, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen were varied to determine the best growth responses. Eight red raspberry cultivars and one wild red raspberry were initially evaluated for overall quality, shoot length, proliferation, leaf characteristics and physiological disorders. The concentration of nitrate was the most significant factor for improved shoot quality of most cultivars. The amount of ammonium and interactions between ammonium and nitrate influenced most shoot growth responses. Tests of 10 additional cultivars and species showed that the five best treatments from the first group tested were also the most effective for the wider range of germplasm. Most of this Rubus germplasm grows well on a medium with increased calcium, magnesium and phosphorous and the standard nitrogen components while others are greatly improved by altering the total nitrogen or the ammonium to nitrate ratios.

Technical Abstract: The nitrogen components of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were significant factors for improved growth in our earlier study that modeled the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry(Rubus idaeus L.). In this study, a mixture component design was applied to optimizing the nitrogen ions (NH4NO3 and KNO3) on a modified MS growth medium with 2.5× MS mesos (CaCl2, MgSO4 and KH2PO4) components. Eight red raspberry cultivars and one R. odoratus L. were initially evaluated for overall quality, shoot length, proliferation, leaf characteristics and physiological disorders. The concentration of NO3- (40-60 mM) was the most significant factor for improved shoot quality of most cultivars. The two-component mixture (NH4+ and K+) and the interactions between the components of the mixture and NO3- influenced most shoot growth responses. Tests of 10 additional cultivars and species showed that the five best treatments from the first group tested were also the most effective for a wider range of Rubus germplasm. Most of this Rubus germplasm grows well on the 2.5×mesos medium with the standard MS nitrogen components while others are greatly improved by altering the total nitrogen or the NH4+:K+ ratios.