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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312978

Research Project: Health Roles of Dietary Selenium in Obesity

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio

Author
item Karl, J. Philip - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Thompson, Lauren - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Niro, Philip - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Margolis, Lee - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Mcclung, James - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Cao, Jay
item Whigham Grendell, Leah
item Combs, Gerald
item Young, Andrew - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Liberman, Harris - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine
item Pasiakos, Stefan - Us Army Research Institute Of Environmental Medicine

Submitted to: Physiology and Behavior
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/25/2014
Publication Date: 12/3/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60160
Citation: Karl, J., Thompson, L.A., Niro, P.J., Margolis, L.M., Mcclung, J.P., Cao, J.J., Whigham Grendell, L.D., Combs, G.F., Young, A.J., Liberman, H.R., Pasiakos, S.M. 2014. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. Physiology and Behavior. 139:524–531.

Interpretive Summary: Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21 ± 1 y, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 d. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-d energy balance period and a subsequent 21-d, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (P < 0.05), but by the end of the energy deficit returned to levels not different from those measured during energy balance. No effects of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on cognitive performance, mood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts.

Technical Abstract: Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21 ± 1 y, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 d. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-d energy balance period and a subsequent 21-d, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (P < 0.05), but by the end of the energy deficit returned to levels not different from those measured during energy balance. No effects of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on cognitive performance, mood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts.