|CHEN, X. - Chinese Academy Of Sciences|
|FRIEDBERG, A. - Tel Aviv University|
|CHESTERS, D. - Chinese Academy Of Sciences|
|SAJEDUL ISLAM, M. - Pennsylvania State University|
|ZHU, C. - Chinese Academy Of Sciences|
Submitted to: Zootaxa
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/24/2015
Publication Date: 9/9/2015
Citation: Chen, X.L., Norrbom, A.L., Friedberg, A., Chesters, D., Sajedul Islam, M., Zhu, C.D. 2015. A systematic study of Ichneumonosoma Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae). Zootaxa. 4013:301-347.
Interpretive Summary: Fruit flies include some of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables, annually causing billions of dollars in losses worldwide. Other species are beneficial as biological control agents of weedy plants. To prevent the spread of the pest species and properly utilize the beneficial species, it is important to know how to distinguish all of the species and to know where they occur and what plants they attack. This publication provides descriptions and illustrations to distinguish 19 species from Asia, including 3 previously unknown species. The available distribution and host data are also provided. This information will be useful to APHIS-PPQ and other regulatory agencies responsible for quarantines to prevent the spread of pest fruit flies and for detecting new pest introductions into the U.S.
Technical Abstract: Four fruit fly genera, Ichneumonosoma Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker, were studied and 19 species are recognized. Three new species, S. infuscata Chen et Norrbom n. sp., I. quadripunctata Chen et Freidberg, n. sp. and I. triangularis Chen et Norrbom, n. sp. are described and illustrated. Ichneumonosoma and Soita are revised, and keys to all the species are provided. Ichneumonosoma imitans (Meijere) is newly recorded from Thailand. One new synonym is established: Soita Walker = Xaniosternum Enderlein, syn.n., and Xaniosternum ophioneum Enderlein is moved from Xaniosternum to Soita (n. comb.). In addition, new morphological, geographic and biological information for two stalk-eyed fruit fly genera, Pelmatops and Pseudopelmatops, are provided. Pelmetops ichneumoneus (Westwood) is newly recorded from Thailand, Pseudopelmatops angustifasciatus Zia & Chen is newly recorded from Vietnam, and the male of P. angustifasciatus is described and illustrated for the first time. The morphology of the compound eye and occiput protuberance of Pelmatops and Pseudopelmatops is described and illustrated for the first time. In addition, a cladistic analysis based on morphological characters of adults was conducted to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four genera and their species. A partial molecular analysis was also conducted using the 28S rDNA (28S) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes. The clade including Ichneumonosoma, Pelmatops, Pseudopelmatops and Soita and each of these genera were well supported as monophyletic groups in the morphology-based cladistic analysis, and the stalk-eyed fruit flies appear closer to Ichneumonosoma than to Soita. In addition, an hypothesis on the biology of Pseudopelmatops and its relationship with Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) is tentatively proposed based on observations of the biology and behavior as well as molecular evidence