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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Ithaca, New York » Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture & Health » Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312884

Research Project: Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc and Select Phytochemicals for Improved Health

Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research

Title: Alterations in gut microflora populations and brush border functionality following intra-amniotic daidzein administration

Author
item HORTONO, KAREN - Cornell University - New York
item REED, SPENSER - Cornell University - New York
item ANKRAH, AYIKARKOR NAA - Cornell University - New York
item Glahn, Raymond
item Tako, Elad

Submitted to: RSC Advances
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/16/2014
Publication Date: 12/23/2014
Citation: Hortono, K., Reed, S.M., Ankrah, A., Glahn, R.P., Tako, E.N. 2014. Alterations in gut microflora populations and brush border functionality following intra-amniotic daidzein administration. RSC Advances. 5:6407-6412.

Interpretive Summary: Daidzein is an isoflavone (organic compound) found primarily in soybean and various soy-based products such as tofu. In the intestines, daidzein is broken down to its metabolites (equol and O-desmethylangolensin). Although the dietary consumption of daidzein has been associated with several physiological improvements and in various pathological states, as cancer, and heart disease, further understanding into the tissue-level effects of daidzein consumption is needed. In this study, broiler chickens embryos, were injected (injection into the amniotic fluid, day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of pure daidzein based solution. Three treatment groups (0.5, 2.5, 5.0 mg/mL) and two controls were utilized. Upon hatch, blood was taken for hemoglobin and total body iron hemoglobin determination (both are markers of iron status), and chicks were then euthanized. Liver, small intestine, and caecal (lower intestine) tissues were collected for ferritin analysis (marker for iron status), gene expression of relevant intestinal nutrients transporters/ proteins (tissue specific markers for iron status), and abundance of three bacterial groups (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium) and one bacterial species (E. coli), were measured. Results revealed no significant differences in hemoglobin, total body hemoglobin iron, or ferritin between groups. Aminopeptidase and Na+K+ATPase (both are intestinal enzymes) were upregulated in daidzein-treated groups when compared to controls. Additionally, daidzein administration increased the expression of Dcyt B, an iron-specific enzyme. Further, daidzein injection resulted in the increased lower intestine abundance of E. coli. These results suggest a physiological role for daidzein administration in improving the functionality and development of the small intestine, as well for influencing the abundance of certain bacterial communities in the lower intestine.

Technical Abstract: Daidzein is an isoflavone found primarily in soybean and various soy-based products such as tofu. In the intestines, daidzein is reductively transformed to its constituent metabolites equol and O-desmethylangolensin. Although the ingestion of daidzein has been associated with marked physiological improvements in various pathological states, namely cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, further understanding into the tissue-level effects of daidzein ingestion is needed. In this study, broiler chickens (Gallus gallus, n = 50,) were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1.0mL pure daidzein in saline solution. Three treatment groups (0.5, 2.5, 5.0 mg/mL) and two controls (saline and non-injected) were utilized. Upon hatch, blood was taken for hemoglobin and total body iron hemoglobin determination, and chicks were then euthanized. Hepatic, duodenal, and caecal tissues were excised for ferritin analysis, mRNA gene expression of relevant brush border membrane and iron transporters/ proteins, and mRNA gene expression of three bacterial genera (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium) and one bacterial species (E. coli). Results revealed no significant differences in hemoglobin, total body hemoglobin iron, or ferritin between groups (p>0.05). Aminopeptidase and Na+K+ATPase were upregulated in daidzein-treated groups when compared to controls (p<0.05). Additionally, daidzein administration increased the expression of Dcyt B, an iron-specific cytochrome reductase (p<0.05). Further, daidzein injection resulted in the increased caecal abundance of E. coli in the 2.5 mg/mL group (p<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest a physiological role for daidzein administration in improving the functionality and development of the brush border membrane, as well for influencing the abundance of certain bacterial communities in the colon.