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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312803

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

Author
item Costa-hurtado, Mar - Orise Fellow
item Afonso, Claudio
item Miller, Patti
item Shepherd, Eric
item Cha, Ra Mi - Former Ars Employee
item Smith, Diane
item Spackman, Erica
item Kapczynski, Darrell
item Suarez, David
item Swayne, David
item Pantin-jackwood, Mary

Submitted to: Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2015
Publication Date: 9/23/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61629
Citation: Costa-Hurtado, M., Afonso, C.L., Miller, P.J., Shepherd, E.M., Cha, R., Smith, D.M., Spackman, E., Kapczynski, D.R., Suarez, D.L., Swayne, D.E., Pantin Jackwood, M.J. 2015. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens. Veterinary Research. 46:97. doi: 10.1186/s13567-015-0237-5.

Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic or velogenic), and not a low virulent NDV strain (lentogenic), interfered with the replication of HPAIV when the HPAIV was given at a high infectious dose two days after the NDV inoculation, but mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with mesogenic NDV three days prior to being infected with a lower dose of the same or a different HPAIV survived the co-infection. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can affect HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV used, and the timing of the infections.

Technical Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic. While infections in poultry with strains of AIV of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) or NDV of low virulence (lNDV) produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease, highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) and virulent NDV cause severe systemic disease with high mortality. Previously, we found that co-infection of chickens with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV also affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lNDV strain (lentogenic LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV (A/Ck/Queretaro/14588-19/95 H5N2) when the H5N2 virus was given at a high dose (10^6.9 embryo infective dose [EID] 50) two days after the NDV inoculation. Despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with mesogenic pigeon/1984 three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10^5.3-5.5 EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 H7N3) survived the co-infection. While still considered to be virulent, mesogenic pigeon/1984 being a typical pigeon variant NDV does not cause severe disease or mortality in adult chickens. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can affect HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV used and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when AIV and NDV co-infect birds in the field.