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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312697


Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research

Title: Effects of complete vitamin and mineral supplementation in full potential all-milk diets on growth and health of Holstein bull calves

item Dehghan-banadaky, Mehdi - University Of Tehran
item Krueger, Lucas - Iowa State University
item Stabel, Judith
item Beitz, Donald - Iowa State University

Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2015
Publication Date: 3/18/2015
Citation: Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Krueger, L., Stabel, J.R., Beitz, D. 2015. Effects of complete vitamin and mineral supplementation in full potential all-milk diets on growth and health of Holstein bull calves. Iowa State University Animal Industry Report - 2014. A.S. Leaflet No. R2968.

Interpretive Summary: Morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves is a major concern for dairy producers. Evidence suggests that calves can become infected shortly after birth by exposure to pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, and Mycoplasma in either the feces or milk of infected dams, bedding or cohabitation with other infected animals. These pathogens may be spread to calves through colostrum or waste milk from sick or infected cows. Some producers have opted to feed colostrum replacers and/or pasteurized whole milk to their calves to avoid the potential spread of disease. However, the vitamin and mineral content of milk is negligible and may be impacting the immune response of neonatal calves to infectious pathogens. This study demonstrated that feeding a greater volume of milk per day improved average daily gain in calves. However, supplementing with trace minerals and vitamins did not impact growth or morbidity of calves in the study. This information provides information for dairy producers to help them efficiently manage feeding of their calves and improving their health.

Technical Abstract: Pre-ruminant Holstein bull calves were fed two diets of pasteurized whole milk (PWM) in amounts that either limited intake or that maximized intake according to common commercial practice. Diets then were either supplemented or not supplemented with a full complement of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM) that met or exceeded NRC requirements. The objective of the study was to quantify the effects of the four feeding strategies on growth of calves, vitamin and mineral statuses in blood, and magnitude of acute phase inflammatory protein expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Calves were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (LM-, low milk, not VTM supplemented; LM+, low milk, VTM supplemented; HM-, high milk, not VTM supplemented; HM+, high milk, VTM supplemented) for 15 days. The HM strategy increased average daily gain in calves, but VTM supplementation did not improve growth during the first two weeks of life. Calves fed more milk had greater magnesium and copper concentrations in blood plasma, but treatment groups did not differ in acute phase protein expression.