|ANTONIOU, JOHN - Jiangnan University|
|LIU, FEI - Jiangnan University|
|MAJEED, HAMID - Jiangnan University|
|QI, JING - Jiangnan University|
|Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally|
|ZHONG, FANG - Jiangnan University|
Submitted to: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/23/2014
Publication Date: 10/30/2014
Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.10.040
Citation: Antoniou, J., Liu, F., Majeed, H., Qi, J., Yokoyama, W.H., Zhong, F. 2014. Controlled release of B-carotene in B-lactoglobulin-dextran conjugates nanoparticles in vitro digestion and the transport with Caco-2 monolayers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 465:137-146. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.10.040.
Interpretive Summary: The inclusion of nanoparticles in edible films can improve flexibility and transparency. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles are food approved components that spontaneously form particles. In addition to size of chitosan particles, environmental variables such as pH, salt concentration, chitosan and TPP concentrations, chitosan-TPP ratios are important to the size of the particles. The manuscript describes optimum conditions for formation of small particles.
Technical Abstract: Chitosan–tripolyphosphate nanoparticles have been extensively studied during the last decade because of their numerous applications. In this study, we describe conditions to optimize chitosan nanoparticles as potential nano-fillers in edible films. The ionic cross-linking between the cationic amino groups on the chitosan (CS) chain and the anionic phosphate groups of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) was verified via FTIR. Particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and surface delta-potential were controlled by chitosan’s Mw and concentration, CS:TPP mass ratio, and external conditions such as pH and salinity of the initial chitosan solution. Post-processing methods such as centrifugation and ultra-sonication were used to further control particle size. We show that particle size can be controlled by selecting appropriate conditions. Particles with sizes below 120 nm were produced at different CS:TPP mass ratios depending on the CS concentration. Dilute NaCl was the optimal solution ionic composition that decreased the size by 25% and also resulted in a narrow particle size distribution. We show using UV–vis spctrophotometry that particles of different size, separated by centrifugation had different phosphorus content. Ultra-sonication can be used to reduce the size by 50% but long time caused fragmentation of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the differences in the morphology of chitosan nanoparticles under various fabrication conditions.