Skip to main content
ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312341

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions

Author
item Baasandorj, Tsogtbayar - North Dakota State University
item Ohm, Jae-bom
item Simsek, Senay - North Dakota State University

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2015
Publication Date: 11/20/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61709
Citation: Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S. 2015. Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions. Cereal Chemistry. 92(6):570-577.

Interpretive Summary: Kernel vitreousness is an optical property of wheat and an important grading parameter for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. Non-vitreous wheat kernels show starchy and light-colored opaque endosperm appearance and vitreous kernel are glasslike and translucent. Vitreous wheat is considered to have better quality and higher protein content than non-vitreous wheats. A little information is recently available on the associations between kernel vitreous level and protein composition, and quality traits for HRS wheat. This research investigated the size distribution of wheat native proteins according to molecular weight, and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. The U.S. Regional Crop Quality Survey samples obtained from six regions for three consecutive growing years were used for sub-class segregation based on the dark, hard, and vitreous (DHV) kernel percentage. Flour milled from HRS wheat with greater percentages of DHV kernel showed the higher water absorption capacity for breadmaking. Protein molecular size parameters could be related to the association between DHV kernel level and water absorption. Specifically, flour protein fractions rich in gliadins that are protein fractions soluble in 70 % aqueous alcohol were identified to have positive associations with DHV kernel and flour water absorption levels. High molecular weight polymeric proteins that are not soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer solution were also identified to have positive associations with DHV kernel and flour water absorption levels. An example further showed the importance of flour water absorption on potential economical incentives that can be gained with having greater percentage of vitreous kernels. These results could help the flour milling and baking industry to segregate the different sub-classes of HRS wheat with varying DHV content for their intended end-use applications.

Technical Abstract: Kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. This research investigated the protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. The U.S. Regional Crop Quality Survey samples obtained from six regions for three consecutive growing years were used for sub-class segregation based on the dark, hard, and vitreous (DHV) kernel percentage. Flour milled from HRS wheat with greater percentages of DHV kernel showed the higher water absorption capacity for breadmaking. Protein MWD parameters could be related to the association between DHV kernel level and water absorption. Specifically, flour protein fractions rich in gliadins and high molecular weight polymeric proteins in SDS-unextractable fraction were identified to have significant and positive correlations with both DHV kernel and flour water absorption levels. An example further showed the importance of flour water absorption on potential economical incentives that can be gained with having greater percentage of vitreous kernels. This information could help the flour milling and baking industry to segregate the different sub-classes of HRS wheat with varying DHV content for their intended end-use applications.