Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #312329

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

Author
item Ahmed, Nazir - Consultant
item Spackman, Erica
item Kapczynski, Darrell

Submitted to: International Symposium on Avian Influenza
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/12/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardized to 384 hemagglutinating units per dose. Ten commercial and experimental adjuvants were evaluated for antibody levels induced by 3 weeks post vaccination of specific pathogen free chickens. The adjuvants were also characterized for protection against morbidity and mortality, and reduction of oral virus shed after homologous challenge with a highly pathogenic (HP) AIV. The highest antibody titers were induced by the 3 mineral oil based adjuvants and a synthetic polymer based product. All of which resulted in 100% seroconversion. Incomplete Freunds’ adjuvant, Chitosan, and a synthetic ester based polymer commercial product induced lower levels of antibody and 40-70% of the chickens had detectable antibody. Calcium phosphate, seaweed derived algenate and un-adjuvanted virus injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously produced no detectable antibody. One of 10 birds inoculated intravenously with un-adjuvanted virus did seroconvert to a low titer. Mortality was reduced to 10% or less by all adjuvanted groups except calcium phosphate (20% morality). Mortality in non-vaccinated and the groups which received un-adjuvanted virus was 60-100%. Virus shed was substantially reduced in all groups compared to non-vaccinated controls except those vaccinated with calcium phosphate, seaweed derived algenate and un-adjuvanted virus.