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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Healthy Body Weight Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #311853

Research Project: Dietary Guidelines Adherence and Healthy Body Weight Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

Author
item Nguyen, Lori - University Of California
item Scherr, Rachel - University Of California
item Ermakov, Igor - University Of Utah
item Gellermann, Werner - University Of Utah
item Jahns, Lisa
item Keen, Carl - University Of California
item Miyamoto, Sheridan - University Of California
item Steinberg, Francene - University Of California
item Young, Heather - University Of California
item Zidenberg-cherr, Sheri - University Of California

Submitted to: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/12/2015
Publication Date: 4/15/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60688
Citation: Nguyen, L.M., Scherr, R.E., Ermakov, I.V., Gellermann, W., Jahns, L.A., Keen, C.L., Miyamoto, S., Steinberg, F.M., Young, H.M., Zidenberg-Cherr, S. 2015. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Archives Of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 572:73-80.

Interpretive Summary: Measuring fruit and vegetable intake in children can be challenging as self-reported intake may be biased and unreliable. Carotenoids, which are compounds found mostly in brightly-colored fruits and vegetables, are considered the best way to objectively measure intake. While blood carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in children, due to parental and child concerns regarding the invasive nature of blood draws and complicated plasma analysis methodologies. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), a quick, inexpensive, and noninvasive method to measure skin carotenoids is emerging as a useful method to objectively assess fruit and vegetable intake. Skin carotenoid status measured using RRS is strongly related to blood carotenoids and reported dietary intake in adults, but limited work has been done in children, particularly in the school setting. The purpose of this research was to further validate the RRS methodology in children. Students (ages 9-12) participating in a school-based nutrition education intervention were recruited for this study. Carotenoids in blood, skin carotenoid status, and self-reported fruit and vegetable intake were measured. Blood carotenoid concentrations and skin carotenoid levels were strongly related to each other. Self-reported fruit and vegetable intake was also strongly related to skin carotenoids. Skin carotenoid status as measured by RRS can be a strong predictor of blood carotenoid status and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in children. Therefore, RRS may be used as a valid, non-invasive, and useful method to assess fruit and vegetable intake in children in a school setting.

Technical Abstract: Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in children, due to parental and child concerns regarding the invasive nature of blood draws and complicated plasma analysis methodologies. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), a noninvasive, optical method to measure skin carotenoids is emerging as a useful method to objectively assess fruit and vegetable intake. Skin carotenoid status measured using RRS is correlated with plasma carotenoids and reported dietary intake in adults, but limited work has been done in children, particularly in the school setting. The purpose of this research is to further validate the RRS methodology in children. Students (ages 9-12) participating in a school-based nutrition education intervention were recruited for this study. Plasma carotenoids were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, dermal carotenoid status was measured using RRS, and reported dietary intake was measured with the 2004 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire Ages 8-17. Total plasma carotenoid concentrations and skin carotenoid intensities were strongly correlated (r=0.62, P<0.0001, n=38). Reported total carotenoid intake also correlated with skin carotenoids (r=0.40, P<0.0001, n=128). Skin carotenoid status as measured by RRS can be a strong predictor of plasma carotenoid status and dietary intake of carotenoids in children. Therefore, RRS may be used as a valid, non-invasive, and useful method to assess fruit and vegetable intake in this population.