|Bett Garber, Karen|
|Stein, Rebecca - Former ARS Employee|
|Andrzejewski, Brett - Former ARS Employee|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2015
Publication Date: 3/28/2015
Citation: Bett Garber, K.L., Lea, J.M., Watson, M.A., Grimm, C.C., Lloyd, S.W., Stein, R., Andrzejewski, B., Marshall-Shaw, D.A., Beaulieu, J.C. 2015. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements. Journal of Food Science. 80(4):S818-S827.
Interpretive Summary: The impact of blueberry type and harvest date variation on flavor are highlighted along with variation due to cultivar. The relationship of sugar concentration, acid concentration, and polyphenols were compared with flavor attributes. Some quality measures, such as pH and soluble solids, were compared to flavor quality. Fresh blueberry juice flavor and compositional impact on flavor is useful to blueberry breeders, packers, and processors for understanding the flavor quality of the berries they are working with. It will help purchasers and processors make decisions on the quality of the blueberries they are acquiring for their products.
Technical Abstract: Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested twice. Each treatment combination was pressed two times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for eighteen flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C), soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with three parameters and negatively correlated with two. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins, and negatively correlated with three parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principle component analysis (PCA) related the non-blueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PCA, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated, and that estimating flavor with physiocochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice.